DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 1st March 2023

  • IASbaba
  • March 1, 2023
  • 0
IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Analysis
Print Friendly, PDF & Email



Open in new window


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently, actor Naseeruddin Shah was in news for praising Akbar’s ‘broad-mindedness and tolerance of all faiths.’

About Akbar :

  • Dynasty:Timurid; Mughal
  • Predecessor:Humayun
  • Successor:Jahangir
  • Biography:Akbarnama; Ain-i-Akbari
  • Mausoleum:Sikandra, Agra
  • He was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun and succeeded him as the emperor in the year 1556.
  • He was born in Umarkot (which is now in Sindh province, Pakistan), and died, in Agra, India.
  • He extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent and he reigned from 1556 to 1605.
  • He established a centralized system of administration and adopted a policy of marriage alliance and diplomacy.
  • Biography by : Abul Fazal


  • The Emperor himself was the supreme governor of the empire.
  • He retained ultimate judicial, legislative, and administrative power above anyone else.
  • He introduced the Mansabdari system to effectively organize the Military.
  • He was assisted inefficient governance by several ministers –
  • Vakil-chief adviser to the King over all matters
  • Diwan-minister in charge of finance
  • Sadar-i-sadur– religious advisor to the King
  • Mir Bakshi-the one who maintained all records
  • Daroga-i-Dak Chowki – to oversee proper enforcement of law
  • Muhtasib–  to oversee the postal department.

Revenue System:

  • The land was divided into four classes according to their productivity – Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar.
  • Polaj – Throughout the empire, Polaj was the ideal and best type of land. This land was always cultivated and was never left fallow.
  • Parauti – This was the land that was temporarily kept out of cultivation in order to regain its fertility.
  • Chachar – Chachar was a type of land that was allowed to lie fallow for three or four years before being cultivated again.
  • Banjar – Banjar was the worst type of land that had been left uncultivated for five years or more.
  • Bigha was the unit of land measurement.
  • Land revenue was paid either in cash or in kind.
  • Dahsala system of land taxation  was introduced under the reign of Akbar.

Judicial Reforms:

  • Hindu customs and laws were referred to in the case of Hindu subjects for the first time during Akbar’s reign.
  • The Emperor was the highest authority in Law and the power to give capital punishment rested solely with him.
  • The major social reform introduced by Akbar was the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax for Hindus in 1563 as well as the Jazia tax.
  • He discouraged child marriage and encouraged widow remarriage.
  • He craved religious unity for his people and with that vision founded the sect Din-i-Ilahi (Faith of the Divine).

Architecture and Culture

  • Among the architectural marvels commissioned during his rule are the Agra Fort (1565–1574), the town of Fatehpur Sikri (1569–1574) with its beautiful Jami Masjid and Buland Darwaza, Humayun’s Tomb (1565-1572), Ajmer Fort (1563-1573), Lahore Fort (1586-1618) and Allahabad Fort (1583-1584). 
  • Akbar’s  Nava Ratnas or the Nine Gems : Abul Fazel, Faizi, Mian Tansen, Birbal, Raja Todar Mal, Raja Man Singh, Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana , Fakir Aziao-Din and Mullah Do Piaza.

Important Conquests:

  • He defeated Hemu in the second battle of Panipat in 1556.
    He consolidated his supremacy over most of north and central India and then over Rajputana by 1576 with the Battle of Haldighati.
  • Akbar brought in Gujarat (1584), Kabul (1585), Kashmir (1586-87), Sindh (1591), Bengal (1592), and Kandahar (1595) within the Mughal territory.
  • The Mughal army led by General Mir Mausam also conquered parts of Baluchistan around Quetta and Makran by 1595.
  • By 1600, Akbar had captured Burhanpur, Asirgarh Fort, and Khandesh in Deccan.

MUST READ: Kingdom of Vijayanagara Empire and Sant Ravidas


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following statements (2018)

  1. White marble was used in making Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri
  2. Red sandstone and marble were used in making Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri was (2014)

  1. the mosque for the use of Royal Family
  2. Akbar’s private chamber prayer
  3. the hall in which Akbar held discussions with scholars of various religions.
  4. the room in which the nobles belonging to different religions gathered to discuss religious affairs

Q3) Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts to the album and individual portrait?(2019)

  1. Humayun
  2. Akbar
  3. Jahangir
  4. Shah Jahan

Lithium reserves in India

Open in new window


  • Prelims – Geography, and Science and technology

Context:  After recent news about the commercial exploration of  lithium in Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka is looking forward to similar possibilities  regarding the lithium reserves in its Mandya district.

About Lithium:

  • Lithium is the lightest metal found on earth.
  • It belongs to the  Alkali metal family.
  • Its density is almost half of that of water.

Uses of Lithium :

  • The body of planes and fighter jets is made from lithium.
  • The batteries in mobile phones and smartwatches are made from lithium.
  • Button cells in clocks are made from lithium too.
  • Lithium is considered a strategic element because of its use in batteries used in Electric Vehicles (EVs).
  • It is also used to make alloys with aluminum and magnesium.

Medicinal Uses

  • Lithium element is used in medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder
  • It is also used as an antidepressant.

About Lithium reserves in India : 

  • The discovery of lithium has been made in the Jammu and Kashmir region of India.
  • This is the first major lithium reserve that has been found in India.
  • Previously, a survey led by the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research showed the presence of lithium resources in the Marlagalla area of Karnataka’s Mandya district.

Global Lithium Reserves:

  • Three nations of South AmericaBolivia, Chile, and Argentina have rich resources of lithium.
  • They are collectively referred to as the ‘Lithium Triangle’.
  • China controls 77% of global lithium-ion battery manufacturing currently.

MUST READ:  Geopolitical implications of India becoming a major producer of lithium and India’s race to secure Lithium


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Monazite is a source of rare earth.
  2. Monazite contains thorium.
  3. Monazite occurs naturally in the entire Indian coastal sands in India.
  4. In India, Government bodies only can process or export monazite.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1, 2, and 3 only
  2. 1, 2, and 4 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) Consider the following minerals: (2020)

  1. Bentonite
  2. Chromite
  3. Kyanite
  4. Sillimanite

In India, which of the above is/are officially designated as major minerals?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 only

Alux and Mayan Civilization

Open in new window


  • Prelims – Art and Culture and Ancient History

Context: Recently, the Mexican President claimed a photo of a tree as a figure from Mayan mythology, as depicted in a historic sculpture from the Mayan civilization.

About Alux:

  • According to Mayan mythology, aluxes are small, mischievous creatures that inhabit forests and fields and like to play tricks on people, like hiding things.
  • It is believed to live somewhere around the Yucatan peninsula.
  • They are typically invisible to humans, although legend has it they are capable of becoming visible when they want to be mischievous or are feeling playful.
  • They are also quick in their movements, and some have even been said to have the body parts of other animals including iguanas, deer, macaws, or coati. Other physical descriptions are similar to those of sprites, spiritual fairy-like creatures.
  • In some regions, Yucatan locals say Aluxes can appear in more frightening forms, including dark shadows or shapes with glowing red eyes.
  • If Aluxes are disrespected or disregarded, they may take on menacing forms to frighten the locals.

About the Mayan Civilization:

  • The Maya are indigenous people of Mexico and Central America.
  • They  have continuously inhabited the lands comprising modern-day Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and southward through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras.
  • The designation Maya comes from the ancient Yucatan city of Mayapan, the last capital of the Mayan Kingdom in the Post-Classic Period.
  • The Maya believed deeply in the cyclical nature of life – nothing was ever `born’ and nothing ever `died’ – and this belief inspired their view of the gods and the cosmos.
  • The great pyramids which characterize so many Mayan sites are replicas of the great mountain of the gods known as the Witzob.
  • The cyclical nature of human existence is mirrored in the famous Maya calendar.

Maya Calendar

  • There are two calendars at work simultaneously in the Maya system: the Haab, or civil calendar of 365 days in an 18-month period of 20 days each, and the Tzolkin, or sacred calendar, of 260 days divided into three groups of months of 20 days.
  • The Haab and the Tzolkin work together, like gears interlocking in a machine, to create what is known as the Calendar Round but cannot account for dates farther in the future than 52 days.

MUST READ: Kushans and coins in India


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which one of the following is not a Harappan site? (2019)

  1. Chanhudaro
  2. Kot Diji
  3. Sohgaura
  4. Desalpur

Q.2) Which of the following characterizes/characterizes the people of the Indus Valley Civilization? (2013)

  1. They possessed great palaces and temples
  2. They worshipped both male and female deities
  3. They employed horse-drawn chariots

Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None of the statements given above is correct

Aztec hummingbirds

Open in new window


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, Aztec hummingbirds were spotted in India.

About Aztec hummingbirds:

  • The name means a ray of the sun.
  • It is a hummingbird native to the American continent.
  • It is also known as the Aztec hummingbird, there exist 350 species of this bird.
  • They can beat their wings up to 50 times per second creating a humming sound.
  • They can fly backward.
  • They prefer Tubular flowers that are bright red or orange (such as lantana and rhododendron).
  • They have very long hand bones but very short arm bones that are connected to the body through flexible ball-and-socket joints.
  • These joints allow the wings to rotate after each half-stroke, permitting backward flight.
  • The purple sunbird, one of its types is commonly found in India.
  • They have the highest metabolic rate (calories burnt per minute) among vertebrates.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which of the following is not a bird?

  1. Golden Mahseer
  2. Indian Nightjar
  3. Spoonbill
  4. White Ibis

Q.2) Consider the following animals (2021)

  1. Hedgehog
  2. Marmot
  3. Pangolin

To reduce the chance of being captured by predators, which of the above organisms rolls up/roll up and protects/protects its/their vulnerable parts?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) Phase-II ,Genetic improvement program of Penaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp)-Phase-I ,and the Aquaculture Insurance Product, and the Genetic Improvement Facility

Open in new window


  • Prelims – Economy

Context: Recently, the Union Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairy Minister inaugurated and launched three national flagship programs .

About National Surveillance Programme on Fish Diseases:

  • It was launched as part of Phase II of the National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) programme.


  • It is implemented by Department of Fisheries since 2013.
  • Its emphasis on strengthening farmer-based disease surveillance system, so that disease cases are reported at once, investigated and scientific support is provided to the farmers.
  • Report Fish Disease app was launched under the NSPAAD.
  • It aims to connect directly with the district fisheries officers and scientists for technical assistance regarding fish diseases and get a solution to the problem.


  • Fish Production in India: The third largest fish producing country with a fish production of 14.73 million metric tonnes.
  • India exports seafood to over 120 countries and is among the top 5 fish exporting countries in the world.
  • Nearly 16 % of the country’s agricultural exports constitute fish and fish products.
  • India is one of the largest exporters of farmed shrimps of around 7 lakh tonnes.
    • However, the country loses about 7200 crores annually due to diseases.
  • Early detection and managing the spread of diseases is considered crucial for controlling the diseases.
  • It will also decrease use of unnecessary fish drugs, which will increase the net profits of fish farmers.

Genetic Improvement Programme of Indian White Shrimp (Penaeus indicus) Phase I:

  • It was launched under the PMMSY to establish a National Genetic Improvement Facility for shrimp breeding.
  • Indian Council of Agricultural ResearchCentral Institute of Brackish water Aquaculture (ICAR- CIBA)(add full form) has taken up the genetic improvement of programme of Indian white shrimp, P. indicus as a national priority under the Make in India flagship program.
  • It aims to break this single species dependence and to promote indigenous species vis-à-vis exotic shrimp species.
  • CIBA has successfully optimized breeding protocol and demonstrated culture potential across different geographic location in coastal states using indigenous feed, indicus plus (35% Protein).


  • The production from shrimp aquaculture increased from about 1 lakh tonnes in 1990 to more than 9 lakh tonnes in 2022.
  • The farmed shrimp alone contributes about 70% of India’s seafood exports worth Rs. 42000 crores.
  • However, the shrimp farming sector mostly depends on one exotic Specific Pathogen free stock of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) species.

Shrimp Crop Insurance product:

  • ICAR-CIBA developed a Shrimp Crop Insurance product with the support of Alliance Insurance brokers which was filed with the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) by Oriental Insurance Company Limited.
  • The product charges differential premium based on location and requirements of the individual farmer from 3.7 to 7.7 % of input costs.
  • Farmer will be compensated to the tune of 80 % loss of input cost in the event of total crop loss. i.e., more than 70% crop loss.

MUST READ: News breeds of India


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Under the Kisan Credit Card scheme, short-term credit support is given to farmers for which of the following purposes? (2020)

  1. Working capital for maintenance of farm assets harvesters,
  2. Purchase of combine tractors and mini trucks requirements of farm
  3. Consumption households
  4. Post-harvest expenses
  5. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2,3,4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2)  In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture? (2020)

  1. Fixing Minimum Support Price for agricultural produce of all crops
  2. Computerization of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
  3. Social Capital Development
  4. Free electricity supply to farmers
  5. Waiver of agricultural loans by the banking system
  6. Setting up of cold storage facilities by the governments.

In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture?

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, 4, and 5 only
  3. 2, 3, and 6 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Raisina Dialogue

Open in new window


  • Prelims – International Conferences

Context: Italian PM Giorgia Meloni to be chief guest at 8th Raisina Dialogue to be held soon.

About The Raisina Dialogue:

  • The Raisina Dialogue is India’s premier conference on geopolitics and geoeconomics committed to addressing the most challenging issues facing the global community
  • The conference is hosted by the Observer Research Foundation in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. This effort is supported by a number of institutions, organizations, and individuals, who are committed to the mission of the conference.
  • Every year, leaders in politics, business, media, and civil society converge in New Delhi to discuss the state of the world and explore opportunities for cooperation on a wide range of contemporary matters.
  • The Dialogue is structured as a multi-stakeholder, cross-sectoral discussion, involving heads of state, cabinet ministers, and local government officials, who are joined by thought leaders from the private sector, media, and academia.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the “G20 Common Framework”, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. It is an initiative endorsed by the G20 together with the Paris Club.
  2. It is an initiative to support Low-Income Countries with unsustainable debt.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS), which of the following statements is/are correct? (2020)

  1. Quantitative restrictions on imports by foreign investors are prohibited.
  2. They apply to investment measures related to trade in both goods and services.
  3. They are not concerned with the regulation of foreign investment.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Jan Vishwas Bill

Open in new window


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: The Union Government has tabled the Jan Vishwas Bill, 2022 in Parliament with the objective of “decriminalizing” 183 offences across 42 legislations and enhancing the ease of living and doing business in India.

Key Provisions of the Bill:

  • Decriminalizing Certain Offences: Under the Bill, several offences with an imprisonment term in certain Acts have been decriminalized by imposing only a monetary penalty.
    • For example, under the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937, counterfeiting grade designation marks is punishable with imprisonment of up to three years and a fine of up to five thousand rupees.
    • The Bill replaces this with a penalty of eight lakh rupees.
  • Revision of Fines and Penalties: In certain Acts, offences have been decriminalized by imposing a penalty instead of a fine.
    • For instance, under the Patents Act, 1970, a person selling a falsely represented article as patented in India is subject to a fine of up to one lakh rupees.
    • The Bill replaces the fine with a penalty, which may be up to ten lakh rupees.
  • Appointing Adjudicating Officers: As per the Bill, the central government may appoint one or more adjudicating officers for the purpose of determining penalties. The adjudicating officers may:
    • Summon individuals for evidence.
    • Conduct inquiries into violations of the respected Acts.
  • These Acts include: the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991.
  • Appellate Mechanisms: The Bill also specifies the appellate mechanisms for any person aggrieved by the order passed by an adjudicating officer.
    • For instance, in the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, appeals may be filed with the National Green Tribunal within 60 days from the order.

Significance of the bill:

  • The government’s goal is to achieve “Minimum Government Maximum Governance” through ease of living and ease of doing business reforms.
  • This involves simplifying, digitizing, and rationalizing compliances to reduce the compliance burden and improve the ease of living for people.
  • The government aims to boost investor confidence and make India the most preferred global investment destination by decriminalizing minor offences and replacing them with monetary penalties.
  • This will not only make lives and businesses easier but also reduce the judicial burden.
  • The proposed bill includes the rationalization of monetary penalties based on the gravity of the offence and an increase in the minimum amount of fine and penalty levied by ten percent after every three years.
    • This will bolster trust-based governance.

Criticisms against the bill:

  • The Bill might undertake ‘quasi-decriminalisation’.
  • The Observer Research Foundation’s report titled Jailed for Doing Business found that there are more than 26000 imprisonment clauses in a total of 843 economic legislations, rules and regulations which seek to regulate businesses and economic activities in India.
  • In this light, the number of offences deregulated under the bill seems to be a mere drop in India’s regulatory framework.
  • The regulatory offences to be considered for ‘decriminalisation’ need to be prioritised not only from the point of view of the ease of doing business but also from the points of view of the ills that plague our criminal justice system itself.
  • The bill conforms to the understanding of the government that decriminalization should be limited to regulatory domains.

Way Forward:

  • Decriminalization of minor offences will not only ensure that disproportionate punishment is not meted out for advertent and inadvertent wrong doings that could be considered ‘minor’, but would also de-clog the courts.
  • In addition to the Parliamentary Joint Committee conducting meetings with stakeholders, multiple ministries and departments have been directed to engage with various associations and provide their inputs.
  • While the current version of the Jan Vishwas Bill is fairly comprehensive, any necessary minor changes or additions may be made based on the feedback received.

MUST READ: Legal framework related to IPR and India’s IPR legal Jurisprudence

Source:  The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit Amendment Act, 2017? (2020)

  1. Pregnant women are entitled for three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.
  2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother minimum six creche visits daily.
  3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) What is the purpose of ‘Vidyanjali Yojana’? (2017)

  1. To enable the famous foreign educational institutions to open their campuses in India.
  2. To increase the quality of education provided in government schools by taking help from the private sector and the community.
  3. To encourage voluntary monetary contributions from private individuals and organizations so as to improve the infrastructure facilities for primary and secondary schools.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Manual Scavenging in India

Open in new window


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: Supreme Court has recently directed government to file report on steps taken to end manual scavenging.

About Manual Scavenging:

  • Manual scavenging refers to the practice of manually cleaning, carrying, disposing or handling in any manner, human excreta or any kind of dry or wet waste from insanitary latrines, open drains, septic tanks or other similar places.
  • Manual scavenging is a dehumanizing practice that involves the use of basic and often unsafe tools like brooms, buckets, and baskets, which can lead to serious health hazards, injuries, and even death.

Manual scavenging in India: A sad story

  • As per 2011 Census of India, there were over 740,000 households in the country where manual scavenging was still being practiced.
  • This practice is often associated with the caste system in India, where people from lower castes, such as Dalits, are forced to engage in manual scavenging.
  • According to the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis, a total of 482 manual scavengers died while cleaning sewers and septic tanks across India between 2016 and 2019.
  • The Safai Karamchari Andolan, an advocacy group working to eradicate manual scavenging, estimates that there are still around 1.8 million manual scavengers in India.
  • Many manual scavengers suffer from various health problems, including skin diseases, respiratory issues, and even death due to exposure to toxic fumes in septic tanks and sewer lines.
  • A total of 233 people died due to accidents while undertaking hazardous cleaning of sewer and septic tanks from 2019 to 2022.
  • Haryana had the highest number of deaths at 13, followed by Maharashtra with 12 and Tamil Nadu with 10.
  • The practice of manual scavenging is mostly carried out by people from lower castes, such as Dalits, and this perpetuates the cycle of caste-based discrimination and social exclusion.

Reasons for Persistence of Manual Scavenging:

There were many reasons why the programme proved to be ineffective:

  • Issue of Women: Most of the provisions for the rehabilitation under the scheme were not gender sensitive and directed towards men, although around 95-98% of the individuals involved in manual scavenging are women.
  • Issue of Loan: The key provision of the scheme was a loan provision with a subsidy.
    • Giving loans to the vulnerable communities, which were compelled to take up manual scavenging, rooted in a caste system and face social, political and economic exclusion is not a sustainable solution.
  • Defaulters: Most of the loans under the Scheme for the Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) were issued through banks with 50% of a subsidy.
    • However, most of the subsidy was spent on paying the chargeable interest to the bank and those not able to pay it become “defaulters”.
  • Rural Areas: According to SRMS Survey, around 60% of those involved in manual scavenging are in rural areas (larger villages and settlements).
    • However, the focus of the scheme was on urban areas.
  • Caste aspect: Government programmes have emphasised the financial aspect of rehabilitation and failed to address the caste-based oppression and related social conditions that have perpetuated this practice for centuries.
  • Corruption: SRMS survey found that in district of Madhya Pradesh there were more than 165 women involved in manual scavenging but not a single name was included in the list of beneficiaries.
    • Only districts with more than 302 women were included.
    • only 10% of those involved in manual scavenging were actually included in the list.
    • This resulted in many eligible individuals not reaching the benefits and those not eligible benefiting of the scheme.

Challenges of stopping manual scavenging:

  • Social stigma: Manual scavenging has been associated with certain castes and communities, which has resulted in social discrimination and stigmatization of people engaged in manual scavenging.
  • Lack of awareness: There is a lack of awareness among people about the health hazards associated with manual scavenging, which has resulted in people continuing to engage in this practice.
  • Insufficient implementation: While laws and regulations have been put in place to prohibit manual scavenging, their implementation has been poor in many areas.
  • Poor infrastructure: In many parts of India, there is a lack of proper sanitation infrastructure, which has resulted in people engaging in manual scavenging to clean the sewage.
  • Inadequate rehabilitation measures: Many of the rehabilitation schemes have not been implemented properly, which has resulted in people not being able to find alternative sources of livelihood.

Steps taken by the government to curb manual scavenging:

  • The government has formulated the NAMASTE scheme or National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem in an effort to stop deaths due to hazardous cleaning of sewers and septic tanks,
  • The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993 was introduced to ban manual scavenging.
  • The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 to further reinforce the ban and to provide for the rehabilitation of people employed as manual scavengers.
  • In 2014, the Supreme Court directed the government to take several measures including:
    • One-time cash assistance to people employed as manual scavengers
    • Houses for manual scavengers
    • Training in livelihood skills for at least one member of their families
    • Concessional loans to prop them up financially and find an occupation
    • Payment of ?10 lakh in compensation in the case of sewer deaths
  • Despite the legal prohibition and government efforts to eradicate manual scavenging, the practice still persists in various parts of the country.

Way Forward:

  • Socio-Economic Rehabilitation: A viable and formidable rehabilitation scheme should be developed which must include provision for social and economic rehabilitation of families liberated from scavenging.
    • Providing adequate provision for compensation, education, accommodation and employment
  • Gender Aspect: All rehabilitation schemes and programmes must be totally redesigned for the women that make up 98% of the workforce and are enslaved by this exploitative tradition.
  • Government Appointments: In the appointment of workers, assistants and cooks in ICDS (Anganwadi) centres, only women from Dalit communities should be appointed.
    • Among Dalits, the manual scavenging community should be preferred.
  • Dalit Muslim and Dalit Christian Manual Scavengers: Non-scheduled castes such as Dalit Muslim and Dalit Christian communities engaged in manual scavenging should receive similar facilities and security to manual scavengers from scheduled castes.
  • Indian Railway: The Indian Railway is the largest institution in the country that use dry latrines.
    • The Railway Ministry must immediately prohibit this practice and for the next three years present progress reports in every session of Parliament.
    • This, so that the Government of India can ensure total abolishment of scavenging in Indian Railway in stipulated time.
  • Priority to Manual Scavengers Community: Inclusion of manual scavengers’ families and those families who have left manual scavenging in the priority list of all government schemes and entailment.
  • Adopting Technology to End Manual Scavenging: It is not going to be possible to eliminate manual scavenging unless we create the right technologies.
    • There are reportedly about 15 innovations developed across the country to replace manual scavenging.
    • While technology is considered essential to end this scourge.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding administrative system during Akbar’s reign:

  1. He introduced the Mansabdari system to effectively organize the Military.
  2. Dahsala system of land taxation was introduced under the reign of Akbar.
  3. He abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax for Hindus in 1563.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 and 2 only

Q.2) Consider the following:

  1. Planes
  2. mobile phones and smartwatches
  3. Electric Vehicles
  4. Clocks

The Lithium finds its application in which of the above items?

  1. 1 2 and 4 only
  2. 2 3 and 4 only
  3. 1 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 3 and 4

Q.3) Consider the following statements regarding Genetic Improvement Programme of Indian White Shrimp (Penaeus indicus) Phase I:

  1. It was launched to establish a National Genetic Improvement Facility for shrimp breeding.
  2. It aims to break this single species dependence and to promote indigenous species vis-à-vis exotic shrimp species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 1st March 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 28th February – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – c

For a dedicated peer group, Motivation & Quick updates, Join our official telegram channel – https://t.me/IASbabaOfficialAccount

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Explainer Videos, Strategy Sessions, Toppers Talks & many more…

Search now.....

Sign Up To Receive Regular Updates