DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –25th July 2023

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  • July 25, 2023
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  • Prelims –Governance

Context: The Tele Mental Health Assistance and Networking across States (Tele MANAS), helpline has reached a significant milestone.


  • Over 200,000 calls received on the Tele-MANAS Helpline since its launch in October 2022.
  • Over 42 functional Tele MANAS Cells across 31 States and UTs, the service is currently catering to 1,300+ calls per day in 20 languages.

About Tele Mental Health Assistance and Networking across States (Tele MANAS):-


  • Launched: 2022.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • Acknowledging the mental health crisis in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and an urgent need to establish a digital mental health network that will withstand the challenges amplified by the pandemic, the Government of India announced National Tele Mental Health Programme (NTMHP) in the Union Budget 2022-23.

Objectives of Tele MANAS:-

  • To enable people to seek support for their mental health issues while maintaining the anonymity of the callers, thereby reducing the stigma generally surrounding mental health issues.
  • To exponentially scale up the reach of mental health services to anybody who reaches out, across India, any time, by setting up a 24×7 tele-mental health facility in each of the States and UTs of the country
  • To implement a full-fledged mental health-service network that, in addition to counselling, provides integrated medical and psychosocial interventions including video consultations with mental health specialists, e-prescriptions, follow-up services and linkages to in-person services.
  • To extend services to vulnerable groups of the population and difficult-to-reach populations.

Salient Features of Tele MANAS:-

  • Tele MANAS will be organized as a two-tier system. (Tele-MANAS)
  • Tier 1: comprise the State Tele MANAS cells, which include trained counsellors and mental health specialists.
  • Tier 2: comprise specialists at District Mental Health Programme (DMHP)/Medical College resources for physical consultation and/or e Sanjeevani for audio-visual consultation.
  • Toll-free helpline numbers: 14416 or 1-800-891-4416 with multi-language provision allows callers to select the language of their choice for availing the services. ( Address Stigma and Discrimination in Mental Health)


  • Any individual with mental health issues can reach out to Tele MANAS services for help.
  • Family members of persons with mental health issues can reach out for help.
  • Grass-root health care providers/community health providerse., Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), and community volunteers from the community can reach out to Tele MANAS on behalf of an individual or individuals in that community with mental health issues.

MUST READ: Need for stronger mental health strategy



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)


India’s public sector healthcare System largely focuses on curative care with limited preventive, promotive and rehabilitative care.


Under India’s decentralized approach to health care delivery, the States are primarily responsible for organizing health services.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q.2) Consider the following statements in the context of interventions being undertaken under the Anaemia Mukt Bharat Strategy: (2023)

  1. It provides prophylactic calcium supplementation for preschool children, adolescents and pregnant women.
  2. It runs a campaign for delayed cord clamping at the time of childbirth.
  3. It provides for periodic deworming. to children and adolescents.
  4. It addresses non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with a special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Cyber security


  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the National Security Advisor (NSA) Ajit Doval participated in the Friends of BRICS meeting in Johannesburg and discussed the issue of cyber security.


  • In addition to BRICS, the Friends of BRICS countries, which participated, are Belarus, Burundi, Iran, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kazakhstan, and Cuba. ( BRICS)

About Cyber security:-

IMAGE SOURCE: cyberin90.blogspot.com

  • Cyber Security is protecting cyberspace including critical information infrastructure from cyberattacks, damage, misuse and economic espionage. (Cyber Security)
  • A cyberattack is an attempt to gain illegal access to a computer system to cause damage.(Cyberattacks)
    • Mode of cyberattack: It can occur on any modern digital device.
    • Impact: can range from an inconvenience for an individual to global economic and social disruption. 

Common cyber threats:-

  • Malware: It is any kind of software that is designed to cause damage to a single computer, server, or computer network.
  • Examples: Ransomware, Spyware, Worms, viruses, and Trojans are all varieties of malware.
  • Spoofing: Cybercriminals try impersonating a bank’s URL with a website that is quite similar to the original one and has similar functions as well. (Cybersecurity & Banks)
  • Phishing: it is attempting to obtain sensitive information such as credit card details, etc. for fraudulent activities, by disguising oneself as an authentic, trustworthy entity via electronic communication
  • Denial of Service attacks: It is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users.
  • Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks: They occur when attackers insert themselves into a two-party transaction.
  • Once the attackers interrupt the traffic, they can filter and steal data.
  • Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection: SQL stands for a programming language used to communicate with databases.
  • Many of the servers that store critical data for websites and services use SQL to manage the data in their databases.
  • A SQL injection attack specifically targets such kinds of servers, using malicious code to get the server to divulge information it normally would not.

Need for Cyber Security:-

  • Others can inappropriately use for Individuals Photos, videos and other personal information shared by an individual on social networking sites.
    • This can further lead to serious and even life-threatening incidents.
  • For Business Organizations: Companies have a lot of data and information on their systems.
    • A cyber-attack may lead to loss of competitive information (such as patents or original work) and loss of employees’/customers’ private data.
    • This may result in a complete loss of public trust in the integrity of the organization.
  • For Government: A local, state or central government maintains a huge amount of confidential data related to the country and its citizens.
    • Unauthorized access to the data can lead to serious threats to national security.

International Mechanisms for Cybersecurity:-

  • The International Telecommunication Union (ITU): plays a leading role in cyber security issues.
    • ITU: a specialized agency within the United Nations with a role of standardization and development of telecommunications and dealing with cyber security issues.
  • Budapest Convention on Cybercrime: It is an international treaty that seeks to address Internet and computer crime (cybercrime) by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations.
    • It came into force in
    • India is not a signatory to this convention.
  • Internet Governance Forum (IGF): It brings together all stakeholders i.e. government, private sector and civil society on the Internet governance debate.
    • It was first convened in October–November 2006.
  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): It is a non-profit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numerical spaces of the Internet, ensuring the network’s stable and secure operation.
  • HQ: Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Cyber Security Laws in India:-

  • Information Technology Act, 2000: The act regulates the use of computers, computer systems, computer networks and also data and information in electronic format.
    • The act lists the following as offences:-
    • Tampering with computer source documents.
    • Hacking with a computer system.
    • Act of cyber terrorisme. accessing a protected system with the intention of threatening the unity, integrity, sovereignty or security of a country.
    • Cheating using computer resources
  • Strategies under National Cyber Policy, 2013: For creating mechanisms for security threats and responses to the same through national systems and processes.
  • National Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in): functions as the nodal agency for coordination of all cyber security efforts, emergency responses, and crisis management.
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC): nodal agency for the protection and resilience of critical information infrastructure.
    • It has been created under the Information Technology Act, of 2000.
    • Objective: to secure India’s critical information infrastructure.
    • HQ: New Delhi.

Challenges in Cyber Security in India:-

  • Increased use of mobile technology and internet by people.
  • Proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) without a proper security infrastructure.
  • Lack of awareness on Cyber security.
  • Lack of Cyber security specialists.
  • Increased use of cyberspace by terrorists.

Recent Steps Taken by Government:-

  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative:-
    • Launched: 2018.
    • Objective: to spread awareness about cybercrime and build capacity for safety measures for Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and frontline IT staff across all government departments.
  • National Cyber Security Coordination Centre (NCCC):
    • Launched: 2017.
    • Objective: to scan internet traffic and communication metadata.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra:
    • Launched: 2017.
    • Objective: this platform was introduced for internet users to clean their computers and devices by wiping out viruses and malware.
  • Information Security Education and Awareness Project (ISEA): a project to raise awareness and to provide research, education and training in the field of Information Security.

MUST READ: India’s cyber infrastructure



Q.1) With the present state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following? (2023)

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs
  3. Disease diagnosis
  4. Text-to-speech conversion
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2, 4, and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) The terms ‘Wanna Cry, Petya and Eternal Blue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to (2023)

  1. Exo-planets
  2. Crypto-currency
  3. Cyber attacks
  4. Mini satellites

National Geoscience Awards-2022


  • Prelims –Important Awards

Context: The President of India, presented National Geoscience Awards-2022 in New Delhi recently.

Key Highlights of the Award Ceremony:-

  • Twenty-two geoscientists, including two women, were awarded.
  • The National Geoscience Award for Lifetime Achievement was conferred upon Dr Om Narain Bhargava, well known for his pioneering work in the Himalayas spanning over the last four decades.
  • The National Young Geoscientist Award was presented to Dr Amiya Kumar Samal, who is Assistant Professor at Banaras Hindu University.
    • He has made a significant contribution to understanding the variation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle below different Archean cratons of the Indian shield.

About National Geoscience Awards-2022:-

  • Instituted in 1966
  • The awards are given annually.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Mines. National Geoscience Awards -2022)
  • Objective: to honour individuals and teams for achievements and contributions in various fields of geosciences.

Broad Disciplines of the National Geoscience Awards:-

  • Mineral Discovery & Exploration
  • Mining, Mineral Beneficiation & Sustainable Mineral Development
  • Basic Geosciences
  • Applied Geosciences

Award’s Decoration:-

  • Each award would be in the form of a Certificate and a Cash Prize.
  • The Cash Prize would be as under:
    • National Geoscience Award for Lifetime Achievement: 5, 00,000.
    • National Geoscience Award: 3, 00,000.
    • [In case of a team award, the award money will be equally divided.]
    • National Young Geoscientist Award: 1,00,000/ plus a research grant of Rs. 5,00,000 spread over five years subject to satisfactory yearly progress
  • The Award money is exempt from Income Tax under Section (10) (17A) of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

MUST READ: Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award (PBSA)



Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the 44th Chess Olympiad, 2022: (2023)

  1. It was the first time that Chess Olympiad was held in India.
  2. The official mascot was named Thambi.
  3. The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Vera Menchik Cup.
  4. The trophy for the winning team in the women’s section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)


  • Prelims –Important Organizations

Context: Recently, The Directorate General of Civil Aviation has adopted guidelines for environmental protection developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).


  • These guidelines are to promote sustainable aviation practices and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation sector. (UPSC CSE: International Solar Alliance)
  • Minister of State for the Ministry of Civil Aviation Gen. (Dr) V. K. Singh informed this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha recently.

About International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):-

  • Establishment: 1944.
  • HQ: Quebec, Canada.
  • The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized funding agency of the United Nations.
  • Objective: to help countries share their skies to their mutual benefit.
  • Membership: It has 193 Member States.
    • India is one of ICAO’s founder members, having attended the Chicago Convention.

Functions of ICAO:-

  • It changes the principles and techniques of international air navigation.
  • It fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.
  • It adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation.
  • It defines the protocols for air accident investigation that are followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation. ( DGCA)

MUST READ: Reforms In Civil Aviation Industry



Q.1) Consider the following infrastructure sectors: (2023)

  1. Affordable housing
  2. Mass rapid transport
  3. Healthcare
  4. Renewable energy

On how many of the above do UNOPS Sustainable Investments in Infrastructure and Innovation (S3i) initiatives focus on its investments.

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) The “Common Carbon Metric” supported by UNEP, has been developed for (2022)

  1. Assessing the carbon footprint of building operations around the world
  2. Enabling commercial farming entities around the world to enter carbon emission trading
  3. Enabling governments to assess the overall carbon footprint caused by their countries
  4. Assessing the overall carbon footprint caused by the use of fossil fuels by the world in a unit of time

India Climate Energy Dashboard (ICED) 3.0


  • Prelims –Governance/Environment & Ecology

Context: Recently, NITI Aayog released the India Climate Energy Dashboard (ICED) 3.0.

About India Climate Energy Dashboard (ICED) 3.0:-

  • It is India’s one-stop platform for near real-time data on the energy sector, climate, and related economic datasets based on government-published sources.
  • Developed by: NITI Aayog in collaboration with the energy and climate think-tank Vasudha Foundation.
  • ICED provides Near Real-Time Data with in-built Analytics to track Climate Action Progress. (Climate Change & Natural Gas Sector)

Salient Features of (ICED) 3.0:-

  • It is developed as a user-friendly platform.
  • It enables users to freely access and analyze datasets using an analytical engine.
  • It will facilitate insights and enhance understanding of the energy and climate sectors. (Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI))
  • The Portal will draw insights from the available data parameters.
  • This dashboard offers more than 500 parameters, over 2000 infographics, and a number of interactive visualizations, allowing users to gain a holistic understanding of India’s energy sector.
  • The dashboard also offers information on economy and demography for comparative study and its combined analysis along with the energy and climate issues.

MUST READ: Renewable Energy Transition



Q.1) Consider the following: (2023)

  1. Aerosols
  2. Foam agents
  3. Fire retardants
  4. Lubricants

In the making of how many of the above are hydrofluorocarbons used?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) With reference to the role of biofilters in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Biofilters provide waste treatment by removing uneaten fish feed.
  2. Biofilters convert ammonia present in fish waste to nitrate.
  3. Biofilters increase phosphorus as a nutrient for fish in water.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None


Gaganyaan Human Spaceflight Mission


  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: The Gaganyaan Human Spaceflight Mission was successfully tested by ISRO at the ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu.

About Gaganyaan Mission:

  • Three people from the crew will be sent into a 400-kilometer orbit for a three-day mission, and they will be brought safely down to Earth with a landing in the Indian Ocean planned.
  • This manned mission will be the first of ISRO’s human spaceflight missions.
  • The US, Russia and China are the only three countries to have conducted human spaceflights yet.
  • It is launched by ISRO’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV Mk III (3 stages heavy-lift vehicle).

Significance of Gaganyaan Mission

  • India’s goal of attaining self-reliance: It will support the Make in India Initiative’s capacity development for satellite launches as well as India’s goal of achieving self-reliance in accordance with Atma Nirbhar Bharat’s vision.
    • It will lessen India’s reliance on outside assistance in this area.
  • Focus on regional needs: Gaganyaan will concentrate on regional demands because there may not be enough International Space Stations (ISS) to meet all of the world’s needs.
  • Strengthening international ties: Through the exchange of ambitious yet peaceful goals, the initiative will promote international partnerships and global security.
  • R&D and robotics program: It will also advance scientific and technological research and development, particularly in the field of space.
    • It is consistent with India’s advancements toward a long-term, reasonably priced program for robotic and human exploration of the solar system and beyond.


  • Environmental Hazards:
    • Hostile space environment with a lack of gravity and atmosphere and danger of radiation.
  • Astronauts may have medical issues due to:
  • Microgravity:
    • Transition from one gravity field to another affects hand-eye and head-eye coordination leading to orientation-loss, vision, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, etc.
  • Isolation:
    • Behavioural issues are likely to crop up when astronauts are confined into small spaces and have to rely on limited resources.
    • They may encounter depression, cabin fever, fatigue, sleep disorder and other psychiatric disorders.
  • Artificial atmosphere:
    • There are two choices for an artificial atmosphere, either an Earth-like mixture of oxygen in inert gas or pure oxygen.
    • A pure or concentrated oxygen atmosphere is toxic and has fire risk, especially in ground operations.
  • Aerospace Technology Challenges:
    • Space flight requires much higher velocities than air transportation.
    • Travelling in a rocket is like sitting on an exploding bomb with a speed increasing from 0 to over 25,000 km per hour in a few minutes.
    • Anything may go wrong during the launch and pre and post phases, including the explosion of the rocket.

Way forward:

In terms of space technology, a manned space programme, ‘Gaganyaan’s success will put India into the elite club of space superpowers. It will help India to put a step forward in developing its own space station. It is important to overcome the technological challenges to ensure a safe, successful manned space mission. International collaboration is important for acquiring needed technology.

Source:  Hindustan Times

Must read:  India’s private sector in Space

Marine heat waves


  • Mains – GS 1 (Geography)

Context: In April 2023, the average daily global sea surface temperature reached 21.1 degrees Celsius, breaking the previous record of 21 degrees Celsius in 2016.

  • Since then, ocean temperatures have remained at record-high levels, giving rise to marine heat waves (MHWs) around the globe.
  • At present, MHWs have gripped the north-east Pacific, the southern hemisphere in the southern Indian Ocean and the Pacific, the north-east Atlantic, tropical North Atlantic, and the Mediterranean.

About marine heatwaves (MHWs):

  • A marine heat wave is often characterised as a coherent region of extremely warm sea surface temperature that lasts for days to months.
    • Marine heat waves occur when sea temperatures are higher than usual for a lengthy period.
  • Over the last decade, MHWs have been recorded in all major ocean basins.
    • These occurrences are connected to coral bleaching, seagrass damage, and kelp forest loss, all of which have a negative impact on the fishing industry.
  • According to a study, during the May 2020 maritime heatwave, 85 percent of the corals in the Gulf of Mannar on the Tamil Nadu coast bleached.

Causes of marine heatwaves:

  • Summer/ winters: Heatwaves can occur in both the summer and the winter, when they are referred to as “winter warm-spells.”
    • These winter occurrences can have serious repercussions, such as in Australia’s southeast, where the spiny sea urchin can only colonies farther south when winter temperatures top 12 °C.
  • Ocean Currents: The most common source of marine heat waves is ocean currents, which may build up patches of warm water and air-sea heat flux, or warming via the ocean surface from the atmosphere.
  • Winds: Sunlight normally penetrates the atmosphere and heats the ocean’s surface. When there are light winds, the warm water does not mix with the cooler water below.
    • It floats on the surface of the water and continues to heat up, resulting in marine heat waves.
  • Climate Change: Large-scale climate influences such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can too cause marine heatwaves.

Impact of marine heat waves on ocean life

Fish kills:

  • Although an increase of 3 or 4 degrees Celsius in average temperatures may not be much for humans, it can be catastrophic for marine life.
  • For instance, MHWs along the Western Australian coast during the summer of 2010 and 2011 caused some “devastating” fish kills.

Destruction of Kelp forest:

  • A different study revealed that the same MHWs destroyed kelp forests and fundamentally altered the ecosystem of the coast.
  • Kelps usually grow in cooler waters, providing habitat and food for many marine animals.

Coral bleaching:

  • High ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean in 2005 led to a massive coral bleaching event.
  • A 2010 study showed that more than 80 per cent of surveyed corals had bleached and over 40 per cent of the total surveyed had died.

Growth of Invasive alien species:

  • MHWs also fuel the growth of invasive alien species, which can be destructive to marine food webs.

Change in behavior of species:

  • They force species to change their behaviour in a way that puts wildlife at increased risk of harm.
  • MHWs have been linked to whale entanglements in fishing gear, according to a report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Impact of marine heat waves on humans

High intensity of storms:

  • Higher ocean temperatures, which are associated with MHWs, can make storms like hurricanes and tropical cyclones stronger.
  • With warmer temperatures, the rate of evaporation escalates and so does the transfer of heat from the oceans to the air.
  • When storms travel across hot oceans, they gather more water vapour and heat.
  • This results in more powerful winds, heavier rainfall and more flooding when storms reach the land — meaning heightened devastation for humans.

Loss of food and livelihood:

  • Half a billion people depend on reefs for food, income, and protection.
  • So when MHWs destroy these reefs, humans relying on them also bear the brunt.

Way Forward:

Since the frequency, intensity, and area covered by the marine heatwaves are increasing, it is needed to enhance the ocean observational arrays to monitor these events accurately, and update our weather models to skilfully predict the challenges presented by a warming world. Effective responses to MHWs require action from a broad range of stakeholders: such as policymakers, researchers, the private sector conservationists, and civil society.

Source: Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

                  Conventions                         Related to
1. Chicago Convention Civil Aviation
2. Budapest Convention Cybercrime
3. Berne Convention copyright law


How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


India is a signatory to the Budapest Convention.


National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) is the nodal agency for the protection and resilience of critical information infrastructure.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


India Climate Energy Dashboard (ICED) 3.0 will facilitate insights and enhance understanding of the energy and climate sectors.


NITI Aayog develops it in collaboration with Vasudha Foundation.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) What are ‘marine heatwaves’? Discuss what causes such waves and their ecological impact. (250 words)

Q.2) What is the importance of Gaganyaan mission to India? Discuss various challenges related to the mission. (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 25th July 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 24th July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – b

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