DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –13th June 2023

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  • June 13, 2023
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Gilgit Manuscripts


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently, the National Archives of India organized an exhibition which exhibited the Gilgit Manuscripts.

 About Gilgit Manuscripts:-

IMAGE SOURCE: slideshare.net

  • Gilgit manuscripts were discovered in the Naupur village (Gilgit region), Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. .
  • Archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein discovered it in the year
  • It was written between the 5th -6th centuries CE.
  • It is the oldest surviving manuscript collection in Indian Subcontinent.
  • It was written on the birch bark folios documents written on pieces of an inner layer of the bark of birch trees found in the Kashmir region.
  • It contains both canonical and non-canonical Jain and Buddhist works that throw light on the evolution of much religious-philosophical literature. (UPSC CSE: Sittanavasal Jain Heritage Site)

National Archives of India

  • The present building of the National Archives of India was constructed in 1926 following the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
  • Historical Background: It was established in 1891 at Kolkata (Calcutta) as the Imperial Record Department.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Culture
  • HQ: New Delhi
  • It is the nodal agency for the implementation of the Public Records Act, 1993 and Public Record Rules, 1997.
  • Its repositories are a vast collection of records, which include files, volumes, maps, bills assented to by the President of India, an important collection of Gazettes and Gazetteers, Census records, assembly and parliament debates, proscribed literature, travel accounts, etc.
  • A major chunk of Oriental records is in Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, etc.

MUST READ: Palm-Leaf Manuscript Museum



Q.1) With reference to Indian history, consider the following texts: (2022)

  1. Nettipakarana
  2. Parishishtaparvan
  3. Avadanashataka
  4. Trishashtilakshana Mahapurana

Which of the above are Jaina’s texts

  1. 1,2 and 3
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1,3 and 4
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) ln Which of the following relief sculpture inscriptions is ‘Ranyo Ashoka’ (King Ashoka) mentioned along with the stone portrait of Ashoka? (2019)

  1. Kanganahalli
  2. Sanchi
  3. Shahbazgarhi
  4. Sohgaura

Anak Krakatau volcano


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau volcano erupted recently.

 About Anak Krakatau volcano:-


  • It is an island in a caldera situated in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.
  • Caldera: It is a large depression formed when a volcano erupts and collapses.
  • Origin: Anak Krakatau, which means the child of Krakatau, is the offspring of the famous Krakatau volcano, whose monumental eruption in 1883 triggered a period of global cooling.
  • In 1927, Anak Krakatoa emerged from the caldera formed in 1883 by the explosive volcanic eruption that destroyed the island of Krakatoa. (UPSC CSE: Volcanic eruption at Mount Semeru)
  • It is part of the Ujung Kulon National Park, listed in UNESCO’s World Heritage site.(UPSC CSE: Dholavira: India’s 40th World Heritage Site)

Ujung Kulon National Park

  • It is a national park on the island of Java, in the province of Banten, Indonesia.
  • It is best known as the last refuge of the one-horned Javan rhinoceros.
  • A remote area of low hills and plateaus, with small lagoons and coastal dunes, it occupies 475 square miles (1,229 square km) on a peninsula and some islands at the extreme western tip of Java.
  • The park faces the Sunda Strait, separating Java from Sumatra, and includes Panaitan Island, about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of the peninsula.
  • it was set aside as a nature reserve in 1921; the national park was proposed in 1980 and formally established in 1992.
  • The area was designated a World Heritage site in 1991.
  • The park today contains the last remaining low-relief forest on Java; typical trees are of the genera Ficus and Barringtonia.
  • Fewer than 60 Javan, or lesser one-horned, rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros sondaicus) remain alive, although the animals once thrived throughout the islands of Java, Borneo, and Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and other areas of Southeast Asia. Poaching and disease are the gravest threats to the remaining Javan rhinoceroses.
  • Additional species in the park include bantengs (a type of wild cattle), Javan gibbons, langurs (leaf monkeys), muntjacs (barking deer), chevrotains (mouse deer), crocodiles, green turtles, green peacocks, and jungle fowl. In the late 20th century Javan tigers, which had inhabited the area, were considered extinct.

MUST READ:  Rhinos



Q.1) The black cotton soil of India has been formed due to the weathering of (2021)

  1. Brown forest soil
  2. Fissure volcanic rock
  3. Granite and schist
  4. Shale and limestone

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. The Barren Island volcano is an active volcano located in the Indian territory.
  2. Barren Island lies about 140 km east of Great Nicobar.
  3. The last time the Barren Island volcano erupted was in 1991 and it has remained inactive since then.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: In the recent aftermath of the escalation of tensions between Kosovo and Serbia, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sent 700 more of its peacekeeping troops to Kosovo.

Kosovo -Serbia Conflict


  • Kosovo: is a small, landlocked country in the Balkans.
  • Bordering countries: Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
  • Many Serbs consider it the birthplace of their nation
  • Historical Background:-
    • After the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Kosovo which was a province of the former country sought independence.
    • Serbia responded with a brutal crackdown against ethnic Albanians seeking independence.
    • This ended in 1999, with a NATO bombing campaign against Serbia.
    • Serbian forces withdrew from Kosovo but for many Kosovo Albanians and Serbs, the conflict has never been resolved.
    • The NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFor) is still based in Kosovo.
    • In 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared independence.
  • UN Members who recognize Kosovo’s independence:-
    • A total of 99 out of 193 United Nations countries now recognize Kosovo’s independence.
    • These include the US, the UK and 22 out of 27 EU countries.
    • Russia, India & China do not recognize Kosovo as an independent state
  • Current Situation:-
    • The relationship between the Albanian-dominated government and the Serb minority has been strained for years.
    • In 2022, tensions led to civil disobedience.
    • In the summer, ethnic Serbs in the northern region of Kosovo, barricaded roads and some men reportedly fired shots in protest against a new law.
    • EU-mediated talks to resolve the dispute

India’s Stand on Kosovo-Serbia Conflict:-

  • India has refused to recognize Kosovo as a separate state since it declared independence from Serbia in 2008.
  • Further, India has, on Serbia’s request, opposed Kosovo’s membership of international bodies, UNESCO, Apostille Convention, Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, and Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.
  • India and Serbia are co-founders of the Non-Aligned Movement and have traditionally enjoyed a close partnership for decades.

About North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):-

IMAGE SOURCE: Britannica

  • NATO is a Western defensive military alliance led by the United States.
  • It is also called the Washington Treaty. (UPSC CSE: NATO)
  • Historical Background: It came into being after World War II as a counter to the Soviet Union’s possible expansion attempts in Europe.
    • Then-US President Harry S Truman signed the 12-member treaty in 1949.
    • After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, several eastern European nations previously members of the Soviet Union joined NATO.
  • HQ: Brussels, Belgium.
  • Headquarters of Allied Command Operations: Mons, Belgium.
  • NATO Secretary General: Jens Stoltenberg.
  • Funding: The U.S. contributes roughly three-fourths of NATO’s budget.
  • 30 Members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States, Greece, Turkey, Germany, Spain, Czech, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia.
    • India is not a member of NATO.

Objectives of NATO:-

  • To safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means.
  • Political objectives: NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defense and security-related issues to solve problems.
  • Military Objectives: NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes but if diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations.
  • These are carried out under the collective defense clause of NATO’s founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organizations.
  • NATO has only once invoked Article 5, in 2001 following the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre in the US.

Functions of NATO:-

  • NATO has an integrated military command structure but very few forces or assets are exclusively its own.
  • Most forces remain under full national command and control until member countries agree to undertake NATO-related tasks.
  • All 30 allies have an equal say, the Alliance’s decisions must be unanimous and consensual.
  • Its members must respect the basic values that underpin the Alliance, namely democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
  • NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.

MUST READ: Turkey’s Peace with Sweden and Finland Joining NATO



Q.1) Region often mentioned in the news:   Country (2022)

  1. Anatolia        Turkey
  2. Amhara       Ethiopia
  3. Cabo Delgado        Spain
  4. Catalonia       Italy

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

Q.2) The term “two-state solution” is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of (2018)

  1. China
  2. Israel
  3. Iraq
  4. Yemen

Ram Prasad Bismil


  • Prelims – Important Personalities/History

Context: The birth anniversary of Ram Prasad Bismil was observed recently.

About Ram Prasad Bismil:-

IMAGE SOURCE: The Better India

  • Bismil was a revolutionary freedom fighter with a poet’s heart.
  • Bismil was born on 11 June 1897, in a village in Uttar Pradesh’s Shahjahanpur district to Murlidhar and Moolmati.
  • British authorities hanged him for his involvement in the Kakori Train Action. He was hanged in the Gorakhpur jail in 1927 and cremated on the banks of the Rapti River.
  • He is a revered symbol of patriotism and Hindu-Muslim unity.
  • He attended the 1921 session of the Indian National Congress at Ahmedabad.

Affiliated Organizations:-

  • He joined Arya Samaj in 1875. (UPSC CSE: Dayanand Saraswati )
  • He formed the organization Matrivedi with Genda Lal Dixit, a schoolteacher.
  • He formed the Hindustan Republic Association in 1924.
    • Hindustan Republic Association: was a revolutionary party to fight against British colonial rule in India.
    • It was evolved into Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928 by Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh and others. (UPSC CSE: Chandra Shekhar Azad)
    • Bhagat Singh: he was a revolutionary hero of the Indian independence movement awarded the death sentence under the Lahore conspiracy case.


  • He published a pamphlet titled ‘Deshwasiyon ke Naam’ and distributed it along with his poem ‘Mainpuri ki Pratigya’ in 1918.
  • He also wrote the cult song “Mera rang de Basanti chola”.


  • His ideals of freedom struggle stood in stark contrast to that of Mahatma Gandhi and he would reportedly say “Independence would not be achieved by means of non-violence”. (UPSC CSE: India and Gandhi )
    • Mahatma Gandhi: he was a lawyer, nationalist, and anti-colonial activist.
    • He led a non-violent mass movement against British rule in India

Major Cases against Bismil

Mainpuri Conspiracy of 1918:-

  • The police found a few young people including Bismil selling books that were not prescribed by the government.
  • To collect funds for the parties, they looted government coffers.

Kakori Conspiracy Case:-

  • In 1925, Bismil and his companions Chandrasekhar Azad and Ashfaqulla Khan looted a train in Kakori near Lucknow.
  • They were arrested alongside a dozen other HRA members within a month of the attack and tried under the Kakori Conspiracy Case.
  • Bismil, Lahiri, Khan and Thakur Roshan Singh were awarded death sentences.

MUST READ: Shaheed Bhagat Singh



Q.1) Consider the following freedom fighters: (2022)

  1. Barindra Kumar Ghosh
  2. Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee
  3. Rash Behari Bose

Who of the above was/were actively associated with the Ghadar Party?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Q.2) The Ghadr (Ghadar) was a: (2014)

  1. revolutionary association of Indians with headquarters in San Francisco.
  2. nationalist organization operating from Singapore.
  3. militant organization with headquarters in Berlin.
  4. communist movement for India’s freedom with headquarters at Tashkent.



  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: The Central Minister for Shipping (MoS) demanded a CBI probe over the alleged attack on the Matuas.

About Matuas:-

  • Matuas are a Scheduled Caste group who trace their ancestry to East Bengal. (UPSC MAINS: Effectiveness of NCSC)
  • Caste: It is a religious sect of Bangladeshi Dalits who predominantly belong to the Namasudra caste. Many of them entered West Bengal after Partition and after the formation of Bangladesh. (UPSC CSE: Importance of Caste Data)
  • Getting citizenship is one of the long-standing demands of this refugee community.
  • Matua Mahasangha is a Hindu reform movement.
  • It has a considerable number of adherents in West Bengal as well as Bangladesh.
  • It believes in Self-Dikshitisation (“Self-realization”).
  • Therefore, anyone who has faith in the Darshan or Philosophy of God Harichand belongs to the Matuamahasanhga.

Historical Background:-

  • The Matua Mahasangha, is a religious reforms movement and a sect which was formed by Harichand Thakur in East Bengal in the mid-1800s.
  • Harichand Thakur: he attained Atma darshan at an early age and would subsequently preach his Darshan in Twelve Commandments
  • His teachings of established education as pre-eminently important for the adherent and upliftment of the population, while also providing a formula for ending social conflict.
  • Harichand’s grandson P R Thakur established West Bengal’s Thakurnagar as headquarters of the sect after 1947.

Significance: –

  • While no official count is available, community leaders put their population at 3 crores. (UPSC MAINS: Role played by caste-based pressure groups)
  • The Namasudras form one of the largest SCs in Bengal, comprising 17.4 per cent of the population, as per the 2001 Census data.
  • They are a deciding factor in many Lok Sabha seats in West Bengal which assumes a lot of political significance.

MUST READ: Reviewing Reservation



Q.1) With reference to India, the terms ‘Halbi, Ho and Kui’ pertain to (2021)

  1. dance forms of Northwest India
  2. musical instruments
  3. pre-historic cave paintings
  4. tribal languages

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2018)

Tradition                                 State

  1. Chapchar Kut festival Mizoram
  2. Khongjom Parba ballad Manipur
  3. Thang-Ta dance             Sikkim

Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

Nutri Garden project


  • Prelims –

Context: The Nutri Garden project of Lakshadweep has turned out to be a big success.

About the Nutri Garden project:-

  • Nutri garden is a method of planting and harvesting nutrient-rich crops in residential houses or in their vicinity to meet the requirements of the family all year round.
  • It is a cost-effective model to grow nutrient-rich crops for personal or community consumption to promote good health and well-being.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Women and Child Development
  • In urban areas: Nutri kitchen gardening can be promoted in the form of rooftop gardening, terrace gardening, vertical gardening and container gardening. (UPSC CSE: Urban farming)
  • In rural areas: Nutri kitchen gardens can be promoted in the backyard of the houses.

Benefits of Nutri Garden:-

  • It increases the availability of food and nutrient sources.
  • It can act as a source of supplementary income.
  • The crops harvested are Fresh and Safe (chemical-free). (UPSC CSE: Natural Farming )
  • It helps tackle both under-nutrition and over-nutrition by adopting a sustainable life cycle approach.


  • Lack of availability of vacant land, water and other necessary infrastructure to create a nutri-garden.
  • Insufficient funds from the administration.

MUST READ: Nutrition Smart Village



Q.1) With reference to the “Tea Board” in India, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Tea Board is a statutory body.
  2. It is a regulatory body attached to the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  3. The Tea Board’s Head Office is situated in Bengaluru.
  4. The Board has overseas offices in Dubai and Moscow.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 and 4
  3. 3 and 4
  4. 1 and 4

Q.2)“System of Rice Intensification” of cultivation, in which alternate wetting and drying of rice fields is practised, results in: (2022)

  1. Reduced seed requirement
  2. Reduced methane production
  3. Reduced electricity consumption

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Non-Communicable Diseases


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: For a State which takes immense pride in consistently coming at the top in the health index rankings of NITI Aayog every year, the findings of the ICMR-INDIAB study, which puts Kerala right on top with the worst overall indicators for long-term morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCD), has come a cropper.

About Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD):

  • No communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors.
  • The main types of NCD are cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and


  • The rise of NCDs has been driven by tobacco, harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity, raised blood pressure, raised blood sugar and raised cholesterol.


  • The epidemic of NCDs poses devastating health consequences for individuals, families and communities, and threatens to overwhelm health systems.
  • The socioeconomic costs associated with NCDs make the prevention and control of these diseases a major development imperative for the 21st century.
  • The diseases kill 7 out of 10 people globally from risk factors like tobacco, alcohol, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and air pollution.
  • Apart from the lives they take, NCDs take a heavy toll on economies, cutting down people in their most productive years.

Kerala’s case study:

  • Kerala has known since the mid or late 90s that NCDs are going to be its biggest health challenge.
  • A current diabetes prevalence of nearly 24%, pre-diabetes at 18.1% and hypertension prevalence at a whopping 44%, is certainly not the picture of a healthy State.
  • With more than half the State’s population having high cholesterol levels and abdominal obesity, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney diseases could skyrocket in the near future and have significant impact on the State’s health expenditure as well as private spending on catastrophic illnesses.

Data Analysis for India

  • According to the study report “India: Health of the Nation’s States”- The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative in 2017 by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), it is estimated that the proportion of deaths due to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India have increased from 37.9% in 1990 to 61.8% in 2016.
  • The four major NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) and diabetes, which share four behavioral risk factors –unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, and use of tobacco and alcohol.

Indian initiatives for tackling NCDs:

  • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented under the National Health Mission (NHM).
  • The Central Government is implementing the Strengthening of Tertiary Care Cancer facilities scheme to support the setting up of State Cancer Institutes (SCI) and Tertiary Care Centres (TCCC) in different parts of the country.
  • Oncology in its various aspects has a focus in case of new AIIMS and many upgraded institutions under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY).
  • Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT) Deendayal outlets have been opened at 159 Institutions/Hospitals with an objective to make available Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases drugs and implants at discounted prices to the patients.
  • Jan Aushadhi stores are set up by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide generic medicines at affordable prices.

Way Forward:

Achieving the SDG target by reducing one-third of premature mortalities due to NCD will make India more resilient to future viral pandemics. Thus, India must strengthen its health infrastructure through the Aatmanirbhar Swasth Bharat programme.

Source:   The Hindu

Self-reliance in Fertilisers


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: “When the world is in crisis, we must pledge — a pledge that is greater than the crisis itself. We must endeavour to make the 21st century, India’s century and the path to achieving this is self-reliance. The above statement of Indian Prime Minister Modi reflects the vision of India for Aatmanirbhar.

Fertilizer Consumption in India:

  • India’s fertilizer consumption in FY20 was about 61 million tonnes — of which 55% was urea—and is estimated to have increased by 5 million tonnes in FY21.
    • Since non-urea (MoP, DAP, complex) varieties cost higher, many farmers prefer to use more urea than actually needed.
    • The government has taken a number of measures to reduce urea consumption. It introduced neem-coated urea to reduce illegal diversion of urea for non-agricultural uses. It also stepped up the promotion of organic and zero-budget farming.
  • Currently, the fertilizer production of the country is 42-45 million tonnes, and imports are at around 18 million tonnes.
  • Subsidy on Urea: The Centre pays subsidy on urea to fertilizer manufacturers based on cost of production at each plant and the units are required to sell the fertilizer at the government-set Maximum Retail Price (MRP).
  • Subsidy on Non-Urea Fertilizers: The MRPs of non-urea fertilizers are decontrolled or fixed by the companies. The Centre, however, pays a flat per-tonne subsidy on these nutrients to ensure they are priced at “reasonable levels”.
    • Examples of non-urea fertilizers: Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP), Muriate of Potash (MOP).
    • All Non-Urea based fertilizers are regulated under Nutrient Based Subsidy Scheme.

Challenges of the sector:

  • High government subsidies such as on Urea and DAP
  • About 73 lakh crore or 5 percent of GDP, the second-highest after food
  • Companies are obliged to sell at MRP, with their higher cost of production or imports being reimbursed as subsidy by the Centre.
  • Small Farmer Inability to derive full benefits: Only 17,500 crores or 35 per cent of total fertilizer subsides reaches small farmers.

Heavy Import dependence:

  • Entire potash requirement, about 90 per cent of phosphatic requirement, and 20 per cent urea requirement is met through imports.
  • The use of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the country has over the last few years sharply deviated from the ideal NPK use ratio of 4:2:1.
    • This causes worsening of soil quality.
  • Imbalance in application: MOP, which contains 60% K, has a high MRP so farmers have no incentive today to apply the same.

Environmental concerns:

  • Nutrient imbalance owing to their use — disproportionate to other, more expensive fertilizers — could have implications for soil health, ultimately affecting crop yields.
  • The India Fertilizers Market is fragmented, with the top five companies occupying 28.93%.

Black market and corruption:

  • Urea is highly regulated and is only subsidized for agriculture
  • This creates a black market that burdens small farmers disproportionately; incentivizes production inefficiency, leads to over-use, depleting soil quality and damaging human health.

Government Initiatives and Schemes:

Neem Coating of Urea:

  • The Department of Fertilizers (DoF) has made it mandatory for all the domestic producers to produce 100% urea as Neem Coated Urea (NCU).

The benefits of use of NCU are as under:

  • Improvement in soil health.
  • Reduction in usage of plant protection chemicals.
  • Reduction in pest and disease attack.
  • An increase in yield of paddy, sugarcane, maize, soybean, Tur/Red Gram.
  • Negligible diversion towards non-agricultural purposes.
  • Due to slow release of Nitrogen, Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) of Neem Coated Urea increases resulting in reduced consumption of NCU as compared to normal urea.

New Urea Policy (NUP) 2015: Objectives of the policy are

  • To maximize indigenous urea production.
  • To promote energy efficiency in the urea units.
  • To rationalize the subsidy burden on the Government of India.

New Investment Policy- 2012:

  • The Government announced New Investment Policy (NIP)-2012 in January 2013 and made amendments in 2014 to facilitate fresh investment in the urea sector and to make India self-sufficient in the urea sector.

Policy on Promotion of City Compost:

  • The Government of India approved a policy on promotion of City Compost, notified by the DoF in 2016 granting Market Development Assistance of Rs.1500/- for scaling up production and consumption of city compost.
  • To increase sales volumes, compost manufacturers willing to market city compost were allowed to sell city compost in bulk directly to farmers.
  • Fertilizer companies marketing city compost are covered under the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) for Fertilizers.

Use of Space Technology in Fertilizer Sector:

  • DoF commissioned a three year Pilot Study on “Resource Mapping of Rock Phosphate using Reflectance Spectroscopy and Earth Observations Data” by National Remote Sensing Centre under ISRO, in collaboration with Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the Atomic Mineral Directorate (AMD).

The Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) Scheme:

  • The DoF has implemented it from April 2010.
  • Under NBS, a fixed amount of subsidy decided on an annual basis, is provided on each grade of subsidized Phosphatic & Potassic (P&K) fertilizers depending on its nutrient content.
  • It aims at ensuring the balanced use of fertilizers, improving agricultural productivity, promoting the growth of the indigenous fertilizers industry and reducing the burden of Subsidy.

Way Forward:

The Department of Fertilisers has positioned India as a key player in the global fertiliser supply chain. India’s bold move towards self-reliance in fertiliser is a testament to the government’s commitment to ensuring food security for its citizens and fulfilling PM Modi’s vision of an Aatmanirbhar Bharat.

Source:  Indian Express

The Need for De-globalization


  • Mains – GS 3 (Governance and International Relations)

Context: Worries about the inadequacies of global governance and weakening multilateralism have heightened in recent years.

About Globalization and De-globalization:

  • Globalization is the word that describes the growing interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information.
  • On the other hand, De-globalization is a movement towards a less connected world, characterized by powerful nation states, local solutions, and border controls rather than global institutions, treaties, and free movement.

The Benefits of Globalization:

Economic benefits:

  • It fostered as well a rapid global industrial development that allowed the rapid development of many of the technologies and commodities, we have available nowadays.

Cultural benefits:

  • The multiplication of economic and financial exchanges has been followed by an increase in human exchanges such as migration, expatriation or traveling. These human exchanges have contributed to the development of cultural exchanges.

The Negative Effects of Globalization:

Disappearing cultures:

  • Apart from all the benefits globalization has had on allowing cultural exchanges, it also homogenized the world’s cultures.
  • That is why specific cultural characteristics from some countries are disappearing.

Rising inequalities:

  • The consequences of globalization are far from homogeneous: income inequalities, disproportional wealth and trades that benefit parties differently.
  • In the end, one of the criticisms is that some actors (countries, companies, individuals) benefit more from the phenomena of globalization, while others are sometimes perceived as the “losers” of globalization.

Environmental pollution:

  • Many critics have also pointed out that globalization has negative effects on the environment.
  • Thus, the massive development of transport that has been the basis of globalization is also responsible for serious environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions, global warming or air pollution.

Reasons for rising tendency towards de-globalisation by some countries:

  • Rise of Asia: Developing nations like India, China and Japan have grown rapidly over the last few decades.
    • The economic power has been shifting from the West to these Asian Nations.
    • Thus, developed nations have started turning inward in order to put a check on the rise of other powers.
  • Protectionism: Although western nations have benefitted immensely from globalization by expanding the reach of their economy and by the acquisition of talented individuals, public support towards it has been waning fast. Developed nations think they have more to lose than to gain.
  • Security concerns: One of perceived consequences of globalization is rising security concerns.
    • Increased exchange and mutual trade between nations have made it increasingly tough to maintain global security.
  • Refugee crisis: Another factor that plays a role in support of de-globalization is the refugee The constant unrest in western Asian nations has caused a severe refugee crisis.

Impact of de-globalisation on India:

Economic impact:

  • De-globalization will lead to reduction in the rate of economic growth of India.
  • It will lead to protectionism with reduced cooperation among countries that will hurt Indian trade and exports.
  • It may lead to increased import costs due to lesser choice and options and manufacturers and producers would have to pay more for equipment, commodities, and intermediate products from foreign markets.

Social impact:

  • It will lead to decrease in standards of living, as it will affect exports and economic growth affecting welfare of poor and their standard of lives.
  • It will lead to rise in conflicts economically and politically.

Political impact:

  • It would affect polity leading to instability in political framework of nations due to rise in prices and cost of living may lead to civil Uprisings.

Impact on technology:

  • These tendencies limit technological advancement of the world as whole and of developing countries in particular.
  • Limited knowledge-sharing, lack of flow of technology to developing countries limit advancement in science.

Impact on Environmental conversation:

  • Due to non-cooperation among nations, it will affect environment conservation efforts in India.
  • It will reduce required funding and would jeopardize efforts to conserve environment and tackle environment change.

Impact on women employment:

  • De-globalization would affect women empowerment efforts as it will impact women movements across the globe. Lack of coordination will reduce opportunities for women across the world.

Impact on security:

  • Due to lack of coordination among various nations, security around the world along with India would affect.
  • It will not only increase economic risks, but would provide an opportunity for terrorists to carry out violence due to lack of coordination among various law enforcement agencies.

Way Forward:

When governments pursue more inclusive economic, social, and environmental agendas, they provide a further benefit to the world economy.  Well-governed economies where prosperity is widely shared are more likely to welcome expanded international trade, investment and immigration.

As economics teaches, the home economy reaps the bulk of the benefits from openness to the world economy, provided the benefits are distributed equitably. When countries help themselves, they help the global economy.

Source:    LM

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements, regarding the Anak Krakatau volcano:

  1. It is situated in the Atlantic Ocean.
  2. It is the offspring of the famous Krakatau volcano.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 and 2

Q2) Consider the following statements, regarding Ram Prasad Bismil:

  1. He published a pamphlet titled ‘Deshwasiyon ke Naam’.
  2. He was tried for the Lahore Conspiracy Case.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 and 2

Q3) Consider the following statements, regarding the Gilgit manuscripts:

  1. It contains canonical and non-canonical only the Buddhist works.
  2. It originated in Himachal Pradesh.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 and 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 13th June 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 12th June – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – b

Q.3) -a

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