DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –13th July 2023

  • IASbaba
  • July 13, 2023
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India Mobile Congress (IMC) 2023


  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: As per recent announcements, India Mobile Congress (IMC) 2023 will be held from the 27th of October this year in New Delhi.

About India Mobile Congress (IMC) 2023:-

  • India Mobile Congress (IMC) is the largest telecom, media, and technology forum in Asia.
  • Organized by: It is jointly organized by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) and the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI).
  • Mission: to catapult India into the limelight, becoming a beacon of the all-encompassing digital transformation shaping the future.
  • Significance: It is a leading forum for bringing together industry, government, academia, and other ecosystem players.
  • Venue: Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. (UPSC CSE: IMC 2021)
  • Ministry: Minister of Information Technology.
  • This is the seventh edition of Asia’s premier digital technology exhibition. (UPSC CSE: IMC 2021)
  • Aim of IMC 2023: The event will harness India’s potent expertise in cutting-edge technologies such as 5G, 6G, broadcasting, satellite, and semiconductors and sculpt an electric atmosphere where ideas ignite, alliances shape, and digital boundaries are incessantly expanded.
  • Theme of the India Mobile Congress-2023: Global Digital Innovation.
  • Sub Themes of the India Mobile Congress-2023: Engage, Learn, Innovate.
  • The event plays a pivotal role in driving meaningful conversations, facilitating enriching connections, and sparking ingenuity across industries.
  • This year IMC is introducing Aspire, the grand Start-Up event.
    • It will lay emphasis on igniting the future of entrepreneurship growth among young innovators and industry delegates in the telecom and other digital domains.

MUST READ: Telecom industry in India



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Carbon fibres are used in the manufacture of components used in automobiles and aircrafts.
  2. Carbon fibres once used cannot be recycled.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to Web 3.0, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Web 3.0 technology enables people to control their own data.
  2. In the Web 3.0 world, there can be blockchain-based social networks.
  3. Web 3.0 is operated by users collectively rather than by a corporation

Which of the following given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)


  • Prelims – Economy

Context: Recently, Union Cooperation Minister Amit Shah addressed the 42nd Foundation Day of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) in New Delhi.


  • Union Cooperation Minister Amit Shah has said that NABARD is ensuring development and prosperity in rural areas by making rural banking accessible.
  • For the last four decades, NABARD has proved to be the backbone of this country’s rural economy, infrastructure, agriculture, and cooperative institutions.
  • NABARD has a huge role in making every person in the village self-reliant especially the women, through self-help groups and establishing them in society with self-respect.

About National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):-

  • Established: 1982.
  • It is a statutory body under the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, of 1981.
  • NABARD came into existence in 1982 by transferring the agricultural credit functions of RBI and refinance functions of the then Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC).
  • NABARD today is fully owned by the Government of India.
  • HQ: Mumbai

Role of NABARD:-

  • It is an apex institution, which has the power to deal with all matters concerning policy, planning.
  • It deals with the operations in giving credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas. (UPSC CSE: Revised Rural Area Development Plan)
  • It is a refinancing agency for those institutions that provide investment and production credit for promoting several developmental programs for rural development.
  • It is improving the credit delivery system in India.
  • It coordinates the rural credit financing activities while maintaining liaison with the Government of India, State Governments, and also RBI.

Functions of NABARD:-

  • It provides refinance for IRDP accounts in order to give the highest share for the support for poverty allevia­tion programs run by IRDP.
  • It also makes the service area plan, to provide backward and for­ward linkages and infrastructural support.
  • NABARD also prepares guidelines for the promotion of group activities under its programs and provides 100% refinance support for them.
  • It is making efforts to establish linkages between the Self-help Group(SHG).
  • It refinances projects that are taken under the ‘National Watershed Development Programme ‘ and the ‘National Mission of Wasteland Development.
  • It also has a system of District Oriented Monitor­ing Studies. (UPSC CSE: Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme)
  • It also supports Vikas volunteer Vahini programs which offer credit and development activities to poor farmers.
  • It also inspects and supervises the cooperative banks and RRBs to periodically ensure the development of rural financing and farmers’ welfare.
  • It recommends licensing for RRBs and Cooperative banks to RBI.
  • It provides assistance and support for the training and development of the staff of various other credit insti­tutions, that are engaged in credit distributions.
  • It also runs programs for agriculture and rural development.

MUST READ: Cooperative Sector Reforms



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. In India, credit rating agencies are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India.
  2. The rating agency popularly known as ICRA is a public limited company.
  3. Brickwork Ratings is an Indian credit rating agency.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the ‘Banks Board Bureau (BBB)’, which of the following statements is correct? (2022)

  1. The Governor of RBI is the Chairman of BBB.
  2. BBB recommends the selection of heads for Public Sector Banks.
  3. BBB helps Public Sector Banks develop strategies and capital-raising plans.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Muslim World League


  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: Recently, President Droupadi Murmu had a meeting with the Secretary General of the Muslim World League, at Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.


  • President Droupadi Murmu today said that India appreciates the role and objectives of the Muslim World League in promoting tolerant values, moderation of consciousness and inter-faith dialogue.
  • India is the country with the second-largest population of Muslims in the world.

About Muslim World League:-

  • Muslim World League (MWL) is an international Non-governmental organization (NGO).
  • Established: 1962.
  • Historical Background: It was founded in accordance with a resolution adopted during the meeting of the General Islamic Conference, which was held in Holy Makkah on the 14th to the 18th May 1962.
  • HQ: Makkah, Saudi Arabia. (UPSC CSE: Arab Spring)

Objectives of the MWL:-

  • Introduce Islam and its tolerant values as presented in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah.
  • Consolidate the concepts of centrism and moderation in the consciousness of the Muslim Ummah.
    • Ummah: a community of believers bound together with a common purpose, to worship God and with a common goal to advance the cause of Islam.
  • Strive to tackle and resolve issues facing the Muslim Ummah, and ward off factors causing conflict and discord.
  • Give emphasis to civilizational rapprochement and spread the culture of dialogue.
  • Give importance to Muslim minorities and their issues and solve them within the constitutions and regulations of the countries in which they are based.
  • Benefit from the Hajj season by facilitating meetings among scholars, intellectuals and heads of organizations to provide scientific solutions to raise the standards of Muslims around the world. (UPSC CSE: GCC Trade pact)
    • Hajj: an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims
  • Preserve the Islamic identity of the Ummah, strengthen its status in the world and make it more united.

Status of the MWL in international organizations:-

  • The United Nations Organization: Observer in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
  • Organization of the Islamic Cooperation: Observe the status of attendance at all meetings and conferences.
  • UNESCO: Member
  • UNICEF: Member

MUST READ: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)



Q.1) Consider the following statements 🙁 2023)


Israel has established diplomatic relations with some Arab States.


The ‘Arab Peace Initiative’ mediated by Saudi Arabia was signed by Israel and Arab League.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2023)

Regions often mentioned in news            Reason for being in the news

  1. North Kivu and Ituri: War between Armenia and Azerbaijan
  2. Nagorno-Karabakh: Insurgency in Mozambique
  3. Kherson and Zaporizhzhia: Dispute between Israel and Lebanon

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Scheme for Capacity Building in Textiles Sector (SAMARTH) scheme


  • Prelims –Government Schemes

Context: Recently, 43 new implementing partners were empanelled under the Scheme for Capacity Building in Textiles Sector (SAMARTH) scheme.


  • The panel of implementing partners has been broadened with the empanelment of 43 new implementing partners and an additional target of training around 75,000 beneficiaries has been allocated to the training partners to enable imparting of skills to the workforce.
  • The Funding pattern has also been revised with an increment of 5% in cost norms, which will give much-needed additional financial support to industries imparting skills under this Scheme.

About Scheme for Capacity Building in Textiles Sector (SAMARTH) scheme:-

  • It is a demand-driven and placement-oriented umbrella skilling programme. (UPSC CSE: Samarth Scheme)
  • Launched: 2017.
  • Implementation period: up to March 2024.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Textiles.
  • The Scheme aims to incentivize and supplement the efforts of the industry in creating jobs in the organized textile and related sectors.
  • In addition to the entry-level skilling, a special provision for upskilling/ re-skilling programme has also been operationalized under the scheme towards improving the productivity of the existing workers in the Apparel & Garmenting segments.
  • It also caters to the upskilling/ re-skilling requirement of traditional textile sectors such as handloom, handicraft, silk and jute. (UPSC CSE: PLI plan for India’s textile sector)
  • It seeks to provide demand-driven, placement-oriented National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) compliant skilling programmes.
  • The scheme has penetrated 28 States and 6 Union territories of the country.
  • It caters to all sections of society including SC, ST, and other marginalized categories.
  • Out of the skilling target of 4.72 lakh beneficiaries allocated so far, 1.88 lakh beneficiaries have been provided training.
  • More than 85% of the beneficiaries trained so far under the scheme are women. More than 70% of the beneficiaries trained in organized sector courses have been provided placement.


  • To ensure a steady supply of skilled manpower in the labour-intensive textile sector.
  • Provide demand-driven, placement-oriented skills which shall be compliant with National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF).
  • To cover the entire value chain of textiles, excluding Spinning and Weaving.
  • Promote skilling and skill upgradation in the traditional sectors of handlooms, handicrafts, sericulture and jute.
  • Enable provision of sustainable livelihood either by wage or self-employment.

Key features of the SAMARTH Scheme:-

  • Training of Trainers (ToT).
  • Aadhar Enabled Biometric Attendance System (AEBAS).
  • CCTV recording of the training programme.
  • Dedicated call centre with helpline number.

Implementing Agencies:-

  • Textile Industry.
  • Institutions/Organizations of the Ministry of Textiles/State Governments having training infrastructure and placement tie-ups with the textile industry.
  • Reputed training institutions/ NGOs/ Societies/ Trusts/ Organizations/ Companies /Start-Ups / Entrepreneurs active in the textile sector having placement tie-ups with the textile industry.

MUST READ: Textile Industry in India



Q.1) Consider the following statements in relation to Janani Suraksha Yojana : (2023)

  1. It is a safe motherhood intervention of the State Health Departments.
  2. Its objective is to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality among poor pregnant women.
  3. It aims to promote institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.
  4. Its objective includes providing public health facilities to sick infants up to one year of age.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Consider the following statements in the context of interventions being undertaken under the Anaemia Mukt Bharat Strategy : (2023)

  1. It provides prophylactic calcium supplementation for preschool children, adolescents and pregnant


  1. It runs a campaign for delayed cord clamping at the time of childbirth.
  2. It provides for periodic deworming to children and adolescents.
  3. It addresses non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with a special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Solomon Islands


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: Recently, the Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands met Chinese leader Xi Jinping in Beijing.


  • Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare met Chinese leader Xi Jinping and Premier Li Qiang.
  • Sogavare and Mr Li presided over the signing of agreements on police, economic and technical cooperation.

About Solomon Islands:-

IMAGE SOURCE: macbio-pacific.info

  • Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania. (UPSC CSE: Solomon Islands)
  • Location: southwestern Pacific Ocean.
    • The Solomon Islands is part of the ethnically Melanesian group of islands in the Pacific.
    • It lies between Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu.
  • Historical Background: The islands, which were initially controlled by the British Empire during the colonial era, went through the hands of Germany and Japan and then back to the U.K. after the Americans took over the islands from the Japanese during World War II.
    • The islands became independent in 1978 to become a constitutional monarchy under the British Crown, with a parliamentary system of government.
  • Capital: Honiara, located on the largest island,
  • Population: less than 700,000.

U.S.-China Rivalry in South Pacific:-

  • Recently, China and the Solomon Islands have signed an inter-governmental framework agreement on security cooperation. (UPSC CSE: Solomon Islands and China Security Pact)
  • The text of the pact has not been released publicly.
  • However, the leaked document enables China to send its “police, armed police, military personnel and other law enforcement and armed forces” to the islands at the Solomon Island government’s request, or if China sees that the safety of its projects and personnel in the islands are at risk.
  • It also provides for China’s naval vessels to utilize the islands for logistics support.
  • There have been speculations that China might be building its next overseas naval base in the Solomon Islands after Djibouti.
  • Australia, which has had a security agreement with Solomon since 2017, has been the most vocal critic of the agreement.
    • It claimed it was concerned about the lack of transparency with which this agreement has been developed, noting its potential to undermine stability in our region.
  • Other countries including the US and New Zealand, have also voiced concern.
  • The US has already announced its plans to reopen its embassy in Honiara (Solomon Capital), which has been closed since 1993.
    • The US State Department pointed out that the agreement could stir up instability in the Solomon Islands.
    • US President Joe Biden convened a summit of Pacific Island leaders in September 2022 to unveil a strategy that included cooperation in climate change, maritime security and preventing overfishing.
    • Biden also promised $810 million in new aid for Pacific Island nations over the next decade, including $130 million to address the effects of climate change.
  • The Agreements signed by Solomon Islands and Chinese officials recently during the visit of Solomon Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare include an implementation plan for police cooperation through 2025.

MUST READ: China’s Security Pact with Solomon Islands



Q.1) Consider the following countries : (2023)

  1. Bulgaria
  2. Czech Republic
  3. Hungary
  4. Latvia
  5. Lithuania
  6. Romania

How many of the above-mentioned countries share a land border with Ukraine?

  1. Only two
  2. Only three
  3. Only four
  4. Only five

Q.2) Which one of the following countries have been suffering from decades of civil strife and food shortages and was in the news in the recent past for its very severe famine? (2023)

  1. Angola
  2. Costa Rica
  3. Ecuador
  4. Somalia

Senior Citizen Savings Scheme


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: As per recent reports, the Senior Citizen Savings Scheme has seen a big rise in popularity in 2023.


  • More than six and a half-lakh accounts being added in the last three months.

About Senior Citizen Savings Scheme:-

  • Launched: 2004.
  • Objective: Provide senior citizens in India a regular income after they attain the age of 60 years old.
  • Eligibility:-
    • Indian citizens above the age of 60 years.
    • Retirees in the age bracket of 55-60 years who have opted for a Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS) or Superannuation.
    • Retired defence personnel above 50 years and below 60 years of age.
  • Exclusions:-
    • Hindu Undivided Family (HUFs) and Non-resident Indians (NRIs) are not eligible to invest in Senior Citizen Savings Scheme.
  • Maturity:-
  • Number of accounts:-
    • Individuals are allowed to operate more than one account by themselves or open a joint account with their spouse.
  • Deposit Limits: Eligible investors can make a lump sum deposit of:-
    • Minimum Deposit: Rs. 1,000 (and in multiples thereof)
    • Maximum Deposit: 30 Lakh.
  • Interest Payment: the interest amount is paid to the account holders
  • Premature withdrawal: After one year of opening the account, premature withdrawal is
  • Deposits in the scheme qualify for deduction under section 80-C of the Income Tax Act.
    • Section 80C of the Income Tax Act: allows them to reduce taxable income by making tax-saving investments or incurring eligible expenses.

MUST READ: Senior Care Ageing Growth Engine (SAGE)



Q.1) Which of the following are the objectives of the ‘National Nutrition Mission’? (2017)

  1. To create awareness relating to malnutrition among pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  2. To reduce the incidence of anaemia among young children, adolescent girls and women.
  3. To promote the consumption of millets, coarse cereals and unpolished rice.
  4. To promote the consumption of poultry eggs.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 4 only
  4. 3 and 4 only

Q.2) Who among the following can join the National Pension System (NPS)? (2017)

  1. Resident Indian citizens only
  2. Persons of age from 21 to 55 only
  3. All State Government employees joining the services after the state of notification by the respective State Governments
  4. All Central Government employees including those of Armed Forces joining the services on or after 1st April, 2004


Does India really need state Governors?


  • Mains – GS 2 (Polity and Governance)

Context: The recent action taken by Tamil Nadu Governor R N Ravi to terminate the appointment of state minister, who was arrested recently, has once again brought attention to the tussle between state governments and the Governor’s office.

About Governor: Constitutional provisions related to Governor

  • Article 153 says that there shall be a Governor for each State. One person can be appointed as Governor for two or more States.
  • A Governor is appointed by the President and is a nominee of the Central Government. It is stated that the Governor has a dual role.
  • He is the constitutional head of the state, bound by the advice of his council of ministers (CoM).
  • Articles 157 and 158 specify eligibility requirements for the post of governor.
    • Governor has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, etc. (Article 161).
  • There is a CoM with the CM at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except some conditions for discretion. (Article 163)
  • Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other Ministers (Article 164).
  • Governor assents, withholds assent, or reserves the bill for the consideration of the President passed by the Legislative Assembly (Article 200).
  • Governor may promulgate the Ordinances under certain circumstances (Article 213).

Powers of Governor

Executive Powers:

  • These powers are exercised by the council of ministers in the name of Governor.
  • Governor is only nominal head and council of ministers is the real executive.
  • He is the constitutional head of the state who appoints the leader of majority party as chief minister.
  • He can seek any information from the chief minister.
  • He appoints the advocate general, chairman and members of the respective state public commission.
  • He can recommend the imposition of constitutional emergency in a state to the President.
  • During the period of President’s rule in a state, the governor enjoys extensive executive powers as an agent of the President.

Legislative Powers:

  • He is part of state legislative assembly.
  • No bill can become a law until the governor signs it.
  • He can withhold a bill and send it to the President for consideration.
  • He can dissolve the State Assembly before the expiry of its term on the advice of the Chief Minister or as directed by the President.

Judicial Powers:

  • The governor appoints the district judges.
  • He is consulted in the appointment of the judges of the High Court by the President
  • He can, pardon, remit and commute the sentence of a person convicted by a state court.

Financial Powers:

  • He causes the annual budget to be laid before the Vidhan Sabha;
  • No money bill can be introduced without his prior approval.

Discretionary Powers:

  • If no party gets an absolute majority, the Governor can use his discretion in the selection of the Chief Minister;
  • During an emergency he can override the advice of the council of ministers.
  • At such times, he acts as an agent of the President and becomes the real ruler of the state;
  • He uses his discretion in submitting a report to the President regarding the affairs of the state; and
  • He can withhold his assent to a bill and send it to the President for his approval.

Controversies Related to Governor’s post:

Central Interference: There have been numerous instances of the Governor’s position being abused, usually at the request of the Centre’s ruling party.

  • The procedure of appointment has been the root of the problem.

Acting as Puppet Rulers: The Governor of Rajasthan has recently been charged for breaking the model code of conduct.

  • His support for the ruling party goes against the ethos of non-partisanship.

Favouring a Particular Political Party: The governor’s discretionary powers to ask the leader of the largest party/alliance to form the government after an election have frequently been abused to favour one political party over another.

Misuse of Power: A Governor’s request for President’s Rule in a state has not always been based on ‘objective material,’ but rather on political whim or fancy.

Controversies Related to Governor’s Role:

  • Abuse of Power by the Centre: There are numerous examples of the Governor’s position being abused, usually at the behest of the ruling party at the Centre.
    • The process of appointment has generally been the cause behind it.
  • Biased Ideology: In several cases, politicians and former bureaucrats identifying with a particular political ideology have been appointed as the Governors by the central government.
    • This goes against the constitutionally mandated neutral seat and has resulted in bias, as appears to have happened in Karnataka and Goa.
  • Puppet Rulers: Recently, the Governor of Rajasthan has been charged with the violation of the model code of conduct. His support of the central ruling party is against the spirit of non-partisanship that is expected from the person sitting on constitutional posts.
    • Due to such incidents, negative terms like an agent of the Centre, Puppet and rubber stamps are used to describe a governor of the state.
  • Favouring a Particular Political Party: Governor’s discretionary powers to invite the leader of the largest party/alliance, post-election, to form the government has often been misused to favour a particular political party.
  • Misuse of Power: A Governor’s recommendation for President’s Rule (Article 356) in a state has not always been based on ‘objective material’, but on political whim or fancy.

The Supreme Court’s stand on office of Governor

  • According to the Supreme Court, the Governor cannot exercise any power that has not been granted to them by the Constitution or a law enacted in accordance with it.
  • The Supreme Court also established the limits of gubernatorial overreach through a series of significant rulings, including the notable cases of:
    • R. Bommai (1994),
    • Rameshwar Prasad (Bihar Assembly Dissolution Case of 2006), and
    • Nabam Rebia (Arunachal Assembly Case of 2016).
  • These decisions effectively eliminate or minimise the potential for excessive abuse of power, subject to the duration required for judicial review.

Way Forward:

The governor has to see that a stable government is formed in the state and also look into the legal validity of the law passed by state legislature and recommend president rule in the state if there is a breakdown of constitutional machinery. Thus the post of governor is essential for the healthy functioning of democracy though it is true that this post has been reduced to becoming a retirement package for politicians.

Source:  Indian Express

Human Trafficking in India


  • Mains – GS 1 (Society) and GS 2 (Governance)

Context: The Ministry of Women and Child Development has approved a scheme to provide financial assistance to states and Union Territories to set up protection and rehabilitation homes for victims of trafficking in states having international borders.

About Human trafficking:

  • It is trading humans mostly for the purpose of bonded labour, forced labour, sexual slavery, commercial sexual exploitation or extraction of organs.
  • Trafficking of humans is considered one of the fastest growing crimes of trans national criminal organizations.
  • It is a crime which involves violation of human rights by means of exploitation and coercion.
  • It is a heinous crime which is occurring not only within a country but also trans nationally.

Trafficking in India:

  • In 2022, 6,622 trafficking victims were reported to have been identified; in addition, 694 were identified as potential victims.
  • In 2021 Police filed charge sheets in 84.7 percent of the 2,189 cases registered under the Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) across the country in 2021.

Issues and challenges of Human Trafficking In India

  • Commercial demand for Sex: The nature of sex trafficking is seen as an economic supply by the traffickers. Males request female prostitutes under this demand model, which creates a market for sex workers and ultimately encourages sex trafficking, illegal trade, and the coercion of people into the sex industry.
  • Poverty and unemployment: Women may migrate voluntarily due to a lack of economic, educational, and social opportunities before becoming involuntarily trafficked for sex work.
  • Globalization: As globalization has opened the national borders for smooth exchange of goods and services, its economic impact has also pushed peoples especially women and children to migrate and be vulnerable to trafficking.
  • Gender based discrimination: Sons are traditionally regarded as more valuable, superior, and useful in a family than daughters in our patriarchal society.
    • As a result, girls in this society have little to no access to education, which causes a gender gap in both literacy rates and potential income for boys and girls.

Legal Instrument to Combat human trafficking:

  • The main international legal instrument is the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000.
  • The Trafficking Protocol, which supplements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, is the only international legal instrument addressing human trafficking as a crime.

Related Constitutional and Legislative Provisions in India:

  • Article 23(1): It prohibits the trafficking of persons.
  • Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA): It aims to stop immoral trafficking and prostitution in India and is divided into 25 sections and one schedule.
  • Sections 366(A) of Indian Penal Code: It prohibits kidnapping and Section 372 of IPC prohibits selling minors into prostitution.
  • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976, Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act 1986 and Juvenile Justice Act: All of these prohibit bonded and forced labour.
  • Protection of Children from Sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012: It is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation.

Other Specific Legislations:

  • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
  • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
  • Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994
  • Specific Sections in the IPC, like Sections 372 and 373 dealing with selling and buying of girls for the purpose of prostitution.
  • Steps by State Governments: States have also enacted specific legislations to deal with the issue, like the Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Act, 2012.

Way forward:

Human Trafficking is an organized crime and operated across domestic and international borders, the nature of the crime needs strong cooperation and intelligence sharing between different investigating agencies.

There is need to ensure a minimum standard of living for all people, strict border control through proper fencing and regular patrolling, prevent corruption in bureaucracy, etc., to curb the menace of trafficking. Steps should be taken to set up Protection Homes across the country, to provide shelter, food, counselling, and medical services to victims. Our development goals must include both economic development and social inclusion.

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements


The Muslim World League was established in 1992.


It is an Observer in the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-11 is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q2) Consider the following pairs:

      Schemes                                                                  Launched in

  1. Senior Citizen Savings Scheme:                             2004
  2. SAMARTH scheme:                                                  2023
  3. National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP): 1995

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. None

Q3) Consider the following statements


SAMARTH scheme ensures a steady supply of skilled manpower in the labour-intensive textile sector.


The scheme covers the entire value chain of textiles, excluding Spinning and Weaving.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) What is human trafficking? Enumerate the steps taken by India to address human trafficking and suggest measures to deal with the crisis. (250 words)

Q.2) The discretion of the Governor cannot be arbitrary or fanciful”. In the context of any such application, more attention is needed. Comment on it with recent examples. (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 13th  July 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 12th July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – a

Q.3) -a

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