DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –1st July 2023

  • IASbaba
  • July 3, 2023
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Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC)


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: Recently, Union Minister for Heavy Industries Dr Mahendra Nath Pandey had a meeting with Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC) and Commerce and Industry Chamber at Leh and reviewed the industry sector.


  • The focus of the meeting was on strengthening indigenous manufacturing in Leh Ladakh.
  • LAHDC requested the minister for the provision of Freight or Transport -Subsidies for the procurement of raw materials like Cement, Steel, Wood Iron and glass.
  • They also sought a grant of permission for the enhancement of Truck Carriage capacity from 9 tonnes to 15 tonnes at Zojila Pass on the Srinagar to Leh National Highway.
  • They further requested some relaxation in the reservation of locally manufactured products by local Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) unit holders for procurement to be procured by the Government Department and organization.

About Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC):-

  • It is an autonomous district council that administers the Leh district of Ladakh.
  • Establishment: The council was created under the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council Act of 1995.
  • Composition: LAHDC-Leh has 30 seats and the government nominates four councilors.
  • Working:-
    • The autonomous hill council work with village panchayats to take decisions on economic development, healthcare, education, land use, taxation, and local governance.
    • These decisions are further reviewed at the block headquarters in the presence of the chief executive councillor and executive councillors.
  • Leh, which is a Buddhist-dominated district of Ladakh, has demanded the implementation of the sixth schedule for the Union territory to guard against demographic change and dilution of the unique cultural and tribal identity.

About Ladakh

  • Ladakh is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is the highest plateau in the State of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Population: The biggest ethnic group is Buddhist having 77.30% of the population followed by Muslims with 13.78% and Hindus with 8.16%.

MUST READ: Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), Leh



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. A bill amending the Constitution requires a prior recommendation of the President of India.
  2. When a Constitution Amendment Bill is presented to the President of India, it is obligatory for the President of India to give his/her assent.
  3. A Constitution Amendment Bill must be passed by both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha by a special majority and there is no provision for joint sitting.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) If a particular area is brought under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which one of the following statements best reflects the consequence of it? (2022)

  1. This would prevent the transfer of land from tribal people to non-tribal people.
  2. This would create a local self-governing body in that area.
  3. This would convert that area into a Union Territory.
  4. The State having such areas would be declared a Special Category State.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: As per recent reports, India will host the 23rd summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Summit in a virtual format.


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will chair the 23rd Summit of the SCO Council of Heads of State on 4th July.
  • India assumed the rotating Chairmanship of SCO at the Samarkand Summit on 16 September last year.
  • India has set up new pillars of cooperation under its Chairmanship by emphasizing startups and innovation, traditional medicine, digital inclusion, youth empowerment, and shared Buddhist heritage.
  • It has worked towards fostering greater people-to-people ties that celebrate the historical and civilizational bonds between nations.

About Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO):-

  • SCO is a permanent Eurasian political, economic and military organization.
  • Objective: to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
  • Establishment: 2001.
  • The SCO Charter was signed in 2002 and entered into force in 2003.
    • It is a statutory document which outlines the organization’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.
  • SCO’s official languages: Russian and Chinese.
  • Founding members: Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai 5.
    • Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organization in 2001, the Shanghai 5 was renamed the SCO.
  • India and Pakistan became members in 2017.
  • Current Members: India, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

Structure of the SCO:

  • Heads of State Council – The top SCO body that decides on internal SCO operations, interactions with other states and international organizations, and international concerns.
  • Heads of Government Council – approves the budget, evaluates, and decides on topics pertaining to SCO’s economic domains of engagement.
  • Council of Foreign Ministers – Considers problems concerning day-to-day operations.
  • Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) – An organization formed to combat terrorism, separatism, and extremism.

MUST READ: Solidarity-2023



Q.1) Consider the following: (2022)

  1. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
  2. Missile Technology Control Regime
  3. Shanghai Cooperation Organization

India is a member of which of the above?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following pairs:

International agreement/ set-up Subject (2020)

  1. Alma-Ata Declaration – Healthcare of the people
  2. Hague Convention – Biological and Chemical Weapons
  3. Talanoa Dialogue – Global Climate Change
  4. Under2 Coalition – Child Rights

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2,3 and 4 only

Sickle Cell Anemia


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the National Sickle Cell Anemia Eradication Mission 2047, recently.


  • The union budget of FY 2023-24, announced to launch of a mission to eliminate sickle cell anemia by 2047.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate the National Sickle Cell Anemia Eradication Mission 2047 in Lalpur village of Madhya Pradesh on 1st July 2023.
  • The mission entails a focus on awareness creation, universal screening of approximately seven crore people in the 0-40 years age group in affected tribal areas and counselling through collaborative efforts of central ministries and state governments.
  • Objectives:-
    • Eliminate SCA by 2047.
    • Create awareness about the disease.
    • The mission will screen seven crore people.
    • People in the age group 0 to 40 years are to be screened.
    • Tribal areas to be targeted.

About Sickle Cell Anaemia:-

  • Discovery: in 1910 by James Herrick.
  • Sickle cell anemia is a group of inherited disorders known as sickle cell disease.
  • It affects the shape of red blood cells.
    • Red blood cells: contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
  • Cause: It is transmitted by parents carrying a defective ‘beta globin’ gene.
  • Disease condition: under normal conditions, the red blood cells being round and flexible move easily through blood vessels.
    • However, in sickle cell anemia, some of the red blood cells acquire the shape of sickles or crescent moons.
  • These sickle cells become rigid and sticky.
  • When they travel through small blood vessels, they are stuck and clog the blood flow.
  • This can cause pain and other serious health problems such as infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke.
  • The sickle cells also die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells.


  • Chronic Anemia: leading to fatigue, weakness, and paleness.
  • Painful episodes (also known as sickle cell crisis): these can cause sudden and intense pain in the bones, chest, back, arms, and legs.
    • Delayed growth and puberty.

Mortality rate:-

  • Mortality rate refers to the percentage of people with a condition who died within a certain period.
  • Sickle cell disease mortality burden is highest in children.
    • However, the mortality rate of SCA for children has dropped dramatically over the last few decades.


  • Blood Transfusions: These can help relieve anemia and reduce the risk of pain crises.
  • Hydroxyurea: This is a medication that can help reduce the frequency of painful episodes and prevent some of the long-term complications of the disease.
  • It can also be treated by bone marrow or stem cell transplantation.
    • Bone marrow transplant: a medical treatment that replaces the bone marrow with healthy cells.
    • It can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, and other blood and immune system diseases that affect the bone marrow.

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Fiscal Federalism in India


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: The Sixteenth Finance Commission (16th FC) is likely to be appointed soon & The commission may have to face some challenging issues of fiscal federalism.

About Fiscal Federalism:

  • It deals with the division of financial powers as well as the functions between multiple levels of the federal government.
  • It has within its ambit the imposition of taxes as well as the division of different taxes between the Centre and the constituent units.
  • Similarly, in the case of joint collection of taxes, an objective criterion is determined for the fair division of funds between the entities.
  • Usually, there is a constitutional authority (like Finance Commission in India) for the purpose to ensure fairness in the division.

Significance of fiscal federalism:

  • Fiscal federalism broadly considers the vertical structure of the public sector, fiscal policy institutions and their interdependence.
  • Fiscal federalism is significant broadly due to following reasons:
    • To determine at which level of government to assign different expenditure responsibilities.
    • To determine the strategy to finance a given level of public goods and services.
    • To adopt strategies to cap excessive spending and borrowing at each level of government.

Challenging issues in Fiscal Federalism:

  • Intersection domain of the Finance Commission and Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council: The latter’s decisions impact the own tax revenue flows of states and, more importantly, the size of the central tax revenue pool .
  • The demands for greater centralization of expenditure assignment is another issue.
    • India has a quasi-federal system.
    • For purposes of legislation, regulation and administration, Schedule 7 of the Constitution assigns 47 subjects to the Concurrent List.
  • There is the issue of externalities: If social benefits or losses can spill over across boundaries of a lower-level jurisdiction, it requires assignment of the subject to a higher-level jurisdiction with wider spatial coverage.
  • Three tier of government: Where it is left to the states to decide what functions from the state list in the 7th schedule should be further delegated and assigned to local governments.
  • Inequality: India’s fiscal federalism driven by political centralisation has deepened socio-economic inequality, belying the dreams of the founding fathers who saw a cure for such inequities in planning.

Way Forward:

  • As recommended by the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution, there should be a formal institutional framework to mandate and facilitate consultation between the Union and the States in the areas of legislation under the Concurrent List.
  • Recommendations of PV Rajamannar committee of 1971 needs to be considered which suggested that the Finance commission be made a permanent body.
  • The Union government needs to invest resources towards facilitating effective consultation with States as a part of the lawmaking process.

Source:   LM  

National Research Foundation (NRF)


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: The Union Cabinet, chaired by the PM of India, approved the National Research Foundation (NRF) Bill 2023, to give the nation’s scientific research a strategic direction.

About NRF:

  • Apex Body: The NRF will be established as the highest governing body for scientific research, in accordance with the recommendations of the National Education Policy (NEP).
  • Department of Science and Technology’s Role: The DST will serve as the administrative department of the NRF, with a Governing Board consisting of eminent researchers and professionals from various disciplines.
  • Leadership Structure: PM will be the ex-officio President of the Board, while the Union Minister of Science & Technology and the Union Minister of Education will be the ex-officio Vice-Presidents.
  • Functioning: The Principal Scientific Adviser will chair the Executive Council responsible for NRF’s functioning.

Salient Features of the NRF Bill 2023: The NRF Bill 2023, which aims to establish the National Research Foundation (NRF) in India, has several salient features, including:

  • Establishment of NRF: The bill provides for the establishment of the National Research Foundation, which will serve as a platform to support and promote research and development activities across universities, colleges, research institutions, and R&D laboratories in India.
  • Culture of Research and Innovation: The NRF aims to foster a culture of research and innovation by providing funding, resources, and support for R&D initiatives. It intends to create an environment that encourages and nurtures scientific research and innovation.
  • Repeal of SERB: The proposed bill repeals the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), which was established by Parliament in 2008.
    • The SERB, which operates under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), will be subsumed into the NRF.
    • This consolidation is aimed at streamlining and strengthening the research funding process.
  • Funding and Support: The NRF will play a crucial role in providing funding and support for scientific and technological research projects, including funding for S and T start-ups, establishment of incubators, and financing science-related initiatives in central and state universities.

Significance of NRF:

  • Addressing Regional Imbalances: One of the key significance of NRF is its focus on funding projects in peripheral, rural, and semi-urban areas that often remain neglected in terms of science funding.
    • By prioritizing research in these areas, the NRF aims to bridge the regional imbalances and promote scientific development across the country.
  • Multidisciplinary Research: The NRF goes beyond traditional boundaries by promoting research not only in the natural sciences and engineering but also in social sciences, arts, and humanities.
    • This multidisciplinary approach recognizes the interconnectedness of different fields and encourages holistic research that can address complex societal challenges and foster innovation.
  • Implementation of Missions: The NRF will play a crucial role in the implementation of various missions, such as the supercomputer mission or the quantum mission.
    • These missions are aimed at advancing specific areas of scientific research and technological development.
    • The NRF’s involvement will provide the necessary funding, support, and coordination to drive these missions effectively and achieve their objectives.
  • Research and Innovation Ecosystem: By bringing together academia, industry, government departments, and research institutions, the NRF strengthens the research and innovation ecosystem in the country.
    • It creates a platform for collaboration, knowledge exchange, and partnerships, fostering an environment where research ideas can thrive, innovations can be commercialized, and societal impact can be realized.

Way Forward:

The Research and Development in frontier areas is key to India’s ambition to grow as an economic and tech superpower. Therefore, the real R and D is about finding answers to questions that have not yet been asked. The NRF is the instrument to prepare our individuals and institutions for that future-ready task.

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements:

  1. Adenoviruses have single-stranded DNA genomes whereas retroviruses have double-stranded DNA genomes.
  2. Common cold is sometimes caused by an adenovirus whereas AIDS is caused by a retrovirus.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements:

  1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of the egg.
  2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from the mother and not from the father.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’1st July  2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 30th June  – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – c

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