DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 8th September 2023

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  • September 8, 2023
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Africa Climate Summit 2023


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: The Africa Climate Summit 2023 ended recently.


  • The inaugural Africa Climate Summit (ACS23) in Nairobi culminated in the ‘Nairobi Declaration’, giving the continent a common voice ahead of upcoming key global engagements.
  • The declaration has a raft of recommendations, pledges, and demands believed to have boosted Africa’s bargaining power on international platforms.
  • The Nairobi summit largely focused on calls to unlock investment in clean energy.

About Africa Climate Summit 2023:-

IMAGE SOURCE: sgss8.com

  • Date: 4th to 6th September 2023.
  • Venue: Nairobi, Kenya (Africa)
  • Objective: to address the increasing exposure to climate change and its associated costs, both globally and particularly in Africa. (African Union)
  • At the Africa Climate Summit, leaders made ambitious pledges and commitments.
  • A comprehensive “Pledging and Commitment Framework” was developed to guide these actions.

Significance of Africa Climate Summit 2023:-

  • Despite having a small carbon footprint, Africa disproportionately bears the human toll of climate change
  • The Summit will highlight the urgent need for regional and global action.
  • The outcomes of the summit are critical for the African continent to arrive at a consensus and mobilize action in the upcoming 28th Conference of Parties (COP28).
  • COP28 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: is to be hosted in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Theme and Focus Areas of Africa Climate Summit 2023:-

  • Climate Action Financing.
  • Green Growth Agenda for Africa. (Horn of Africa)
  • Climate Action and Economic Development.
  • Global Capital optimization.

 MUST READ: India-Africa Relationship



Q.1) About three-fourths of the world’s cobalt, a metal required for the manufacture of batteries for electric motor vehicles, is produced by (2023)

  1. Argentina
  2. Botswana
  3. Democratic Republic. of the Congo
  4. Kazakhstan

Q.2) Which one of the following is a part of the Congo Basin? (2023)

  1. Cameroon
  2. Nigeria
  3. South Sudan
  4. Uganda

Electric vehicles (EVs)


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology/ Science and Technology

Context: The preparations for the upcoming World Electric Vehicles (EVs) Day were seen in full swing recently.


  • Every year, on September 9, the World Electrical Vehicle (EV) Day is celebrated.
  • It is an initiative created by the sustainability media Co. GreenTV.
  • 2020: the inauguration of the World EV Day.
  • The day is designated as World EV Day to honour electric vehicles.
  • It is an international movement that unites people in pursuing change.
  • Science shows that replacing internal combustion engines (ICE) that power our diesel and petrol cars can eliminate toxic tailpipe emissions in our polluted cities, along with significantly lowering heat-trapping carbon emissions from fuel combustion.
  • Global trends show that this shift from ICE to electric vehicles (EV) is inevitable in the next few decades.

About Electric vehicles (EVs):-

IMAGE SOURCE: evolveetfs.com

  • An electric vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
  • They may be powered through self-contained batteries, solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.
  • They run on electricity instead of gasoline. (Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV))
  • They emit no tailpipe pollution or greenhouse gas emissions.
  • They tend to be quieter and smoother than other vehicles.
  • Most electric cars have batteries that have to be recharged from an outside source of electricity.

Advantages of electric vehicles (EVs):-

  • EVs are eco-friendly.
  • They have low maintenance costs.
  • They protect the environment from noise pollution.
  • They are an alternative to combustion engines powered by fossil fuels, which discharge harmful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
  • The adoption of electric vehicles is consistent with India’s pledge to lower carbon emissions and provide renewable energy sources more support.
  • They are unaffected by geopolitical tensions or rising oil prices.
  • They can lessen India’s reliance on the Gulf countries for fuel imports.
  • It provides a catalyst for future innovation in mobility- and hybrid-based technologies.
  • EV production will benefit regional industries and expand India’s homegrown manufacturing sector.
  • Setting up new production and charging systems infrastructure will improve skill-building programs and create more jobs. Thus providing

Challenges of Electric Vehicles:-

  • Lack of Associated Infrastructural
  • Lack of a Stable Policy for EV Production.
  • Long time for Charging Batteries.
  • Battery manufacturing process and supply chain.
  • Lack of Skilled Workers.

Important Government Initiatives:-

FAME India: Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India.

  • It is an incentive scheme that encourages the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • Manufacturers and infrastructure providers of electric vehicles receive this incentive in the form of subsidies.

National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020:

  • It aims to deploy 5 to 7 million electric vehicles nationwide by 2020.
  • It aims to promote the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles in the country.
  • The plan includes the following measures: providing incentives for manufacturers, promoting charging infrastructure, and encouraging research and development in the sector.

Concessions on the GST:

  • The government promotes the use of electric vehicles by levying a 5% GST on electric vehicles as compared to a GST of 28% on internal combustion automobiles.

Go Electric Campaign:

  • The objective of this campaign is to create awareness and promote the use of electric vehicles and kitchen appliances and to ensure the nation’s energy security.

 MUST READ: Electric Vehicles and Battery Fires



Q.1) Consider the following statements (2023)

  1. Carbon fibres are used in the manufacture of components used in automobiles and aircraft.
  2. Carbon fibres once used cannot be recycled.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following actions: (2023)

  1. Detection of car crash/ collision which results in the deployment of airbags almost instantaneously.
  2. Detection of accidental free fall of a laptop towards the ground which results in the immediate turning off
  3. of the hard drive.
  4. Detection of the tilt of the smartphone which results in the rotation of the display between portrait and landscape mode

In how many of the above actions is the function of the accelerometer required?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)


  • Prelims – Important Organizations

Context: Secretary General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Mathias Cormann arrived in New Delhi to attend the G20 Summit recently.


  • European Council President Charles Michel also arrived to attend the G20 Summit.

About the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD):-

  • Establishment: 1960.
  • HQ: Paris, France.
  • Objective: to shape policies that foster prosperity, equality, opportunity and well-being for all.

Historical Background:-

  • The forerunner of the OECD was the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).
  • OEEC was formed to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.
  • The Convention transforming the OEEC into the OECD was signed in Paris in 1960 and entered into force in

Members of OECD:-

  • OECD currently has 38 member nations and the Member Countries are each represented by a delegation led by their ambassadors.
  • The 38 Member Countries consist of: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • India is a non-member economy with working relationships with the OECD.

Functions of OECD:-

  • It is responsible for publishing economic reports, statistical databases, analyses, and forecasts on the outlook for economic growth worldwide. (OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework tax deal)
  • The group analyzes the impact of social issues on economic growth and makes recommendations.
  • It endeavours to eliminate bribery and other forms of financial crimes worldwide.
  • It seeks to eliminate bribery and other financial crimes
  • It also maintains a “blacklist” of nations that are considered uncooperative tax havens.


  • OECD Economic Outlook
  • OECD Communication Outlook
  • OECD Internet Economy Outlook

 MUST READ: Digital taxation & OECD: On a weak pillar



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

The ‘Stability and Growth Pact’ of the European Union is a treaty that

  1. limits the levels of the budgetary deficit of the countries of the European Union
  2. makes the countries of the European Union share their infrastructure facilities
  3. enables the countries of the European Union to share their technologies

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only· two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) Rapid Financing Instrument” and “Rapid Credit Facility” are related to the provisions of lending by which of the following (2022)

  1. Asian Development Bank
  2. International Monetary Fund
  3. United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative
  4. World Bank

Malaviya Mission - Teachers Training Programme


  • Prelims – Government Initiatives

Context: The Malaviya Mission – Teachers Training Programme was launched recently.


  • Union Minister for Education and Skill Development & Entrepreneurship Shri Dharmendra Pradhan launched the Malaviya Mission – Teachers Training Programme by the University Grants Commission at Kaushal Bhawan, New Delhi.
  • He also inaugurated the Portal of the Programme and released its information brochure.

About Malaviya Mission – Teachers Training Programme:-

  • Organized: September,2023.
  • Organized by: University Grants Commission and Ministry of Education.
  • Duration: 2 weeks. (NIPUN bharat mission)
  • Objective: to provide tailored training programmes for teachers.
  • This programme will work for the capacity building of faculty members in higher educational institutions.
  • It will improve the quality of teachers’ training, build leadership skills in teachers and help realize the goals of NEP. (One year of NEP reform: new initiatives)
  • Themes: 8 themes are identified for course curriculum/content for capacity building of faculty members at higher educational institutions.
  • These include Holistic and Multidisciplinary Education, Indian Knowledge Systems (IKS), Academic Leadership, Governance and Management, Higher Education and Society, Research and Development, Skill Development, Student Diversity and Inclusive Education and Information and Communication Technology.
  • Online Portal: To facilitate this transformative journey, the UGC has also established a dedicated portal for faculty members to register for the capacity-building programmes. (NISHTHA)


  • The programme will ensure continuous professional development.
  • It will help in building capacities of 15 lakh teachers of HEIs through 111 Malaviya Mission centres across India in a time-bound manner.
  • It will help to make educators future-ready with a deeper understanding of Indian values.

MUST READ: Savitribai Phule: India’s first woman teacher



Q.1) Consider the following statements in relation to Janani Suraksha Yojana: (2023)

  1. It is a safe motherhood intervention of the State Health Departments.
  2. Its objective is to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality among poor pregnant women.
  3. It aims to promote institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.
  4. Its objective includes providing public health facilities to sick infants up to one year of age.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Atal Innovation Mission is set up under the (2019)

  1. Department of Science and Technology
  2. Ministry of Labour and Employment
  3. NITI Aayog
  4. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Cauvery wildlife sanctuary


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Researchers discovered a ‘white’ sambar in the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary recently.


  • A white sambar was photographed in the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary during a research study.
  • This is the first recorded photographic record of a white form of sambar from this landscape.

About Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary:-

  • Location: Near Malemadeshwara Hills, Mandya, Karnataka.
  • Area: It covers an approximate area of about 1027.53 square kilometres (396 square miles).
  • Naming: The river Cauvery forms the boundary of the sanctuary and gives it its name.
  • 1987: It was constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, of 1973 for the purpose of Protecting, Propagating or developing Wildlife and its environment.
  • It consists of reserve forests in Chamarajnagar, Ramanagar and Mandya Districts of Karnataka State.
  • Vegetation: dry deciduous forests, scrublands, grasslands, and riverine ecosystems.
  • Fauna: elephants, tigers, leopards, wild boars, deer, various species of birds, reptiles, etc.
  • Among aquatic fauna, the predominant species are Crocodiles (listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act), Otters and Hump-backed Mahseer Fish.
  • Significance: It provides a safe habitat for several endangered and vulnerable species.

Sambar deer:-

  • The Sambar (Rusa unicolour) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  • Habitats: dry deciduous forests, rainforests and mixed forests.
  • Distribution: Their range is distributed from the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains across southern Asia and reaching the islands of Taiwan, Sumatra and Borneo.
  • Significance: These deer play an important role in the ecosystem they live in by dispersing seeds throughout their native range.


  • Hunting by humans: Sambar has developed more of a nocturnal activity pattern as a response to hunting by humans, who hunt them for trade and food.
  • Habitat encroachment. (Wildlife Protection)
    • Habitat encroachment: refers to the intrusion of human activities, such as agriculture, infrastructure development, or urbanization, into natural habitats, often resulting in habitat loss and degradation.

Conservation status:-

  • IUCN: Vulnerable.
  • The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule-III.

 MUST READ: (Blackbuck)



Q.1) Which one of the following protected areas is well-known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasingha) that thrives well on hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous? (2020)

  1. Kanha National Park
  2. Manas National Park
  3. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Tal Chhaper Wildlife Sanctuary

Q.2) Which of the following Protected Areas are located in the Cauvery basin? (2020)

  1. Nagarhole National Park
  2. Papikonda National Park
  3. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
  4. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Satkosia Tiger Reserve


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, two sub-adult tuskers were found dead in Satkosia Tiger Reserve.


  • In the latest incident of elephant deaths in the state, two sub-adults, including a 15-year-old tusker, were found dead in Satkosia Tiger Reserve.

About Satkosia Tiger Reserve:-

  • Establishment: 2007.
  • Satkosia Tiger Reserve, comprises two adjoining sanctuaries of central Odisha named Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary and Baisipalli Sanctuary.
  • These two sanctuaries together covering an area of 963.87 sq km were notified as Tiger Reserve in December 2007.
  • Location: It is located in the Angul district of Odisha.
  • River: This reserve spans four districts and is characterized by the Mahanadi River flowing through its valleys.
  • Biodiversity: Satkosia is the meeting place of India’s two bio-geographic zones, the Eastern Ghats and the Deccan Peninsula, both of which provide enormous biodiversity.


  • The area supports moist deciduous forests, dry deciduous forests and moist peninsular Sal forest.


  • Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Gaur, Chousingha, Sloth bear, Wild dog, varieties of resident and migratory birds, reptilian species, etc.

MUST READ: Wildlife Institute of India (WII)



Q.1) Consider the following statements : (2023)

Once the Central Government notifies an area as a ‘Community Reserve’

  1. the Chief Wildlife Warden of the State becomes the governing authority of such forest
  2. Hunting is not allowed in such areas.
  3. People in such areas are allowed to collect non-timber forest produce.
  4. People of such areas are allowed traditional agricultural practices.

How many of the above statements are correct.?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Which of the following are the most likely places to find the musk deer in its natural habitat? (2020)

  1. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Gangotri National Park
  3. Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Manas National Park

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only


Measuring unemployment in India


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), India’s unemployment rate was 6.1% in 2017 (the highest ever recorded) and the PLFS of 2021-22 showed unemployment reducing to 4.1%.

About Unemployment:

  • According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), an unemployed person is a person aged 15 or over who simultaneously meets three conditions
    • Unemployment is being out of a job.
    • Being available to take a job.
    • Actively engaged in searching for a job.
  • Trends in unemployment rates in India:

Measuring unemployment in India:

  • Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status (UPSS): This method focuses on an individual’s primary economic activity over the course of a year.
    • It considers an individual employed if they spent a relatively long time in economic activity during the previous year, even if they were unemployed for a significant portion of the year.
    • This approach may lead to lower unemployment rates because it considers longer-term work patterns.
  • Current Weekly Status (CWS): CWS, on the other hand, adopts a shorter reference period of one week.
    • An individual is considered employed if they worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the seven days preceding the survey.
    • This method is more sensitive to short-term employment fluctuations and may result in higher unemployment rates.
  • Informal Economy: The definitions used in India are often tailored to capture the informal economy, where employment is characterized by irregular and casual work.
    • This informal sector is a significant part of the Indian labour market, and traditional unemployment measures used in developed economies may not accurately reflect the employment dynamics in this context.

Reasons for unemployment in India:

  • Large population: The number of job seekers often exceeds the available job opportunities.
  • Inadequate economic growth: Slow economic growth relative to the population growth rate means that the economy cannot create enough jobs to absorb the increasing workforce.
  • Lack of vocational skills and education: Many job seekers in India lack the necessary vocational skills or have low educational qualifications, making them less competitive in the job market.
    • Nearly 93% of the population in India did not receive any vocational or technical training, according to Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18.
  • Lack of employability: According to India Skills Report (ISR), less than half of the Indian graduates are employable.
    • In 2021, as many as 45.9 per cent of graduates are employable, a decline from 46.21 per cent in 2020 and 47.38 per cent in 2010.
  • Inadequate attention to small and medium enterprises (SMEs): SMEs are more labor intensive than that of large firms.
    • However, big companies remain the main beneficiaries of the fiscal policy of the government.
  • Agriculture as a seasonal occupation: Agriculture, which still employs a significant portion of the workforce, provides seasonal employment.
    • Farmers and agricultural laborers often face unemployment during non-harvest seasons.
  • Ineffective economic planning: A lack of comprehensive economic planning and policy measures to address the gap between labor supply and demand can result in unemployment.

Impacts of unemployment in India:

  • Poverty: Unemployment can indeed push individuals and families into poverty.
    • This not only affects their living standards but can also have intergenerational consequences as children growing up in impoverished households may face limited opportunities.
  • Social unrest: High levels of unemployment can lead to social unrest and protests.
    • When a large segment of the population is without jobs and opportunities, frustration and discontent can build up, potentially resulting in civil unrest and protests. This can disrupt the social fabric and stability of a nation.
  • Mental health issues: Prolonged unemployment can take a toll on individuals’ mental health.
    • The stress and anxiety of not being able to find work, coupled with the social stigma often associated with unemployment, can lead to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and a loss of self-esteem.
  • Economic loss: Unemployment results in an economic loss for a country.
    • When people are not employed, they are not contributing to the country’s production and GDP.
    • This can lead to lower economic growth and reduced overall prosperity.
  • Reduced consumer spending: Unemployed individuals have less disposable income, which in turn leads to reduced consumer spending.
    • This decrease in consumer demand can negatively affect businesses, leading to lower sales, layoffs, and potentially a vicious cycle of economic downturn.

Steps taken to address unemployment by the government:

  • Atma Nirbhar Bharat Package: The government announced the Aatmanirbhar Bharat package to stimulate business and mitigate the impact of COVID-19.
    • It includes various long-term schemes and policies for self-reliance and employment opportunities.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS): Statutory guaranteed 100 days employment for an unskilled worker in rural areas.
  • Startup India: The Startup India initiative is designed to encourage entrepreneurship and support the growth of startups.
    • By fostering innovation and providing financial incentives, regulatory support, and mentorship, this program aims to create jobs and stimulate economic growth through the startup ecosystem.
  • Make in India: The Make in India campaign promotes manufacturing and aims to transform India into a global manufacturing hub. By attracting both domestic and foreign investments in manufacturing, it seeks to create job opportunities in the industrial sector and boost economic growth.
  • National Skill Development Mission: It was set up in November 2014 to drive the ‘Skill India’ agenda in a ‘Mission Mode’ in order to converge the existing skill training initiatives and combine scale and quality of skilling efforts, with speed.

Source:  The Hindu

End of Old Multilateralism – and the Beginning of a New Order


  •     Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: Post-Cold War, the multilateralism is past its peak — at both the global and regional levels.

  • Recent East Asia Summit in Jakarta and the G20 summit in Delhi highlight the deep and arguably irreversible crises in the old multilateral order.

About Multilateralism:

  • The relationship between three or more groups of states is known as multilateralism.
    • It consists of some qualitative principles that construct the character of an institution or arrangement.
  • The principles are a commitment to the diffusion of reciprocity, indivisibility among participants on interest, and a system to settle disputes.
  • The new multilateral world order is a term that refers to the emergence of new forms of cooperation and dialogue among different countries and regions in the 21st century.
    • It is a response to the challenges and opportunities posed by globalization, climate change, pandemics, terrorism, and other issues that require collective action and shared solutions.

Post-Cold War Multilateralism:

  • The end of the Cold War at the turn of the 1990s created favourable conditions for an intensive phase of multilateralism.
  • Europe moved towards rapid regional economic integration and expansion under the banner of the European Union.
  • In Asia, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) provided the framework for intensifying regional economic and political cooperation.
  • Regionalism in Europe and Asia was facilitated by the end of the great power rivalry in both continents.
  • Russia was drawn into the Group of Seven (G7) led by Western countries, making it the G8.
    • Moscow was also engaged in consultations with the NATO.
  • In Asia, China became a close partner for the US on economic and political fronts.
  • This, in turn, translated into new possibilities for cooperation among major powers on global issues — such as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and pandemics.

Reasons behind Decline of Existing Multilateralism:

  • Contradictions within the multilateral system: The multilateral system itself has faced internal contradictions and challenges.
    • These internal disagreements and conflicting interests among member states have weakened the effectiveness of multilateral organizations and impeded consensus-building.
  • Rise of alternative security forums: In response to China’s expansionism, alternative security forums like the Quad, AUKUS, and trilateral compacts have emerged.
    • These forums reflect a shift away from traditional multilateral institutions, raising questions about the continuing relevance and centrality of existing regional organizations like ASEAN.
  • Changing perspectives of key players: The changing perspectives of key players, such as India, have also contributed to the decline of existing multilateralism.
    • India’s evolving view of the international order, shifting from concerns about a “unipolar Asia” dominated by China to a more proactive engagement with the United States and its allies, has altered the dynamics of multilateralism in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Rise of china and its expansionism: One of the primary reasons behind the decline of existing multilateralism is the rise of China as a global economic and military power.
    • China’s expansionist policies, both in Asia and globally, challenge the existing multilateral order.
    • Its unilateral efforts to alter borders with neighbours and its assertive territorial expansionism have created tensions and destabilized regional and global institutions.
  • Impacts of Russian actions: The Russian occupation and annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea in 2014 (and ongoing war) marked a significant challenge to the post-Cold War security order, particularly in Europe.
    • This event disrupted multilateralism by causing rifts and conflicts in the international community.

Salient features of India’s new multilateral approach?

  • Quad collaboration: At the Jakarta summit, Indian’s PM emphasizes that the Quad complements ASEAN’s efforts and promotes regional stability.
  • The expansion and diversification of the existing multilateral institutions, such as the UN, the IMF, and the World Bank, to include more voices and perspectives from the developing world and the Global South.
  • Focus on Re-globalisation: External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar advocates for a diversified, democratic globalisation, moving away from a China-centric production model.
  • Collective responsibility: Despite challenges in multilateralism, India continues to seek collective solutions, focusing on diverse issues like modernising the global tax regime.
  • Concerns of Global South: India prioritizes the concerns of the Global South in the G-20 agenda, aiming to enhance cooperation between developed and developing nations, rather than reviving old confrontational politics.

Role of India:

  • Acting as central player: India is emerging as a pivotal figure in shaping both regional and global dynamics, highlighted by its active participation in forums like the Indo-Pacific Quadrilateral Forum.
  • Evolution of G20 grouping: India is pushing for the G20 to address the concerns of the Global South, signalling its desire to play a more substantial role in global economic discussions.
  • Shifting alliances: Historically aligned with Moscow and Beijing for a multipolar world, India’s focus has shifted due to China’s increasing assertiveness, leading it closer to nations like Australia, Japan, and the US.
  • Embracing the Indo-Pacific: India has adopted the Indo-Pacific concept and rejuvenated the Quad alliance to counterbalance China’s influence in the region.

Way Forward:

As a hosting country for G20 presidency, India can use G20 summit as an opportunity to showcase its vision and achievements as a global leader, as well as to forge consensus on important issues such as climate change, sustainable development, health security, and digital transformation. It offers the perfect platform for India to infuse partner nations with foundational ideas and pave the way for the beginning of a new world order.

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

International Organization HQ
1.Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Vienna, Austria
2.Food and Agriculture Organization Rome, Italy
3.WHO New York City, USA

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Malaviya Mission-Teachers Training Programme is organized by the University Grants Commission only.


It aligns with the goals of the National Education Policy (NEP).

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) With reference to the Africa Climate Summit 2023, consider the following statements:

  1. It will be hosted by Egypt.
  2. Global Capital optimization is one of the focus areas.
  3. It will address the increasing exposure to climate change and its associated costs, only in Africa.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Elucidate on the social and economic impacts of unemployment problems in India. What innovative strategies do you suggest to unemployment rate in India? (250 words)

Q.2) Discuss the reasons behind the decline of the old World Order and emergence of new multilateral world order. What is the significance for India in this context? (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’  8th September 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 7th September – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – a

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