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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 3rd January 2023

  • IASbaba
  • January 3, 2023
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Schengen Zone

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Geography and International Relations

Context: Recently, Croatia adopted the euro currency and enter Europe’s passport-free Schengen zone after nearly a decade after joining the European Union.

About Schengen Zone:

  • Schengen Area signifies a zone where 27 European countries (now 28), abolished their internal borders, for the free and unrestricted movement of people
  • It is in harmony with common rules for controlling external borders and fighting criminality by strengthening the common judicial system and police cooperation.
  • Schengen Area covers most of the EU countries, including Ireland and the countries that are soon to be part of the Schengen Area: Romania, Bulgaria, and Cyprus.
  • Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Lichtenstein are associate members of the Schengen Area but are not members of the EU.
    • They are part of the EFTA and implement the Schengen acquis through specific agreements related to the Schengen agreement.
  • Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City have opened their borders with, but are not members of the visa-free zone.
  • There are three more EU members, that have not joined the Schengen zone: Romania, Bulgaria, and Cyprus – that are seeking to join soon.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following pairs:

Region often mentioned in the news:   Country

  1. Anatolia Turkey
  2. Amhara Ethiopia
  3. Cabo Delgado Spain
  4. Catalonia Italy

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

K9-Vajras

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: The Defence Ministry has started the process for the procurement of 100 more K9-Vajra tracked self-propelled howitzers, which are built by L and T using technology transferred from South Korea.

About K9-Vajras:

  • The K9-Vajra is a 155-mm, 52-calibre tracked self-propelled howitzer based on the K9 Thunder built by Hanwha Defense.
  • K9-Vajra offers a high rate of fire at long-range.
  • It is compatible with Indian standard.
  • It is made of all-welded steel armour protection material.
  • In India the K9 gun has been developed under the Buy Global programme of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) where foreign companies are allowed to participate.
  • For K9-Vajra, Hanwha Techwin of South Korea is the technology partner of L&T.
  • The first 10 guns have been imported from South Korea and assembled in India.
  • The remaining 90 guns were largely manufactured in the country.

Platinum drugs

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Scientists from Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, have discovered a Ruthenium−Ferrocene Bimetallic agent that shows a highly potent antitumor effect in platinum-resistant cancers.

About Platinum drugs:

  • Platinum drugs are chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment of many types of cancers.
  • Platinum-based anticancer drugs are- including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, nedaplatin, and lobaplatin.
  • Patient can experience any combination of around 40 specific side effects by using it.

About Agharkar Research Institute (ARI):

  • The Institute, founded in 1946 as the Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science Research Institute.
  • It was renamed in 1992 as the Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) in honour and memory of the Founder Director, the late Professor Dr. Shankar Purushottam Agharkar.
  • The ARI is an autonomous research institution fully funded by the Department of science and Technology (DST) government of India, since 1966.
  • It operates under the overall umbrella of the Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science (MACS).
  • The institute is committed to the promotion of science and technology with emphasis on high standards of research and development activities for the benefit of human kind and the nation.
  • The current research activities encompass biological sciences and focus on three broad areas.
    • Animal Sciences
    • Microbial Sciences
    • Plant Sciences
  • The ARI is also a main research centre under three All India co-ordinated research projects of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR):Wheat breeding, Soybean breeding and grape breeding.
  • An agricultural farm located at Hol, near Baramati, about 80 km from Pune, conducts experiments on crop plants and for multiplication of seed of improved varieties.

Source: The Times of India

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the carbon nanotubes, consider the following statement :

  1. They can be used as the carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body.
  2. They can be made into artificial blood capillaries for an injured part of the human body.
  3. They can be used in biochemical sensors.
  4. Carbon nanotubes are biodegradable.

Which of the statements given above are correct ?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Lachin Corridor

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Geography

Context: Recently, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has issued a statement warning about deteriorating humanitarian situation in Nagorno-Karabakh due to closure of Lachin Corridor.

About Lachin Corridor:

  • It is a road that links Armenia and the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • It has been blocked by Azerbaijani protesters related to the issue of illegal mining of natural resources in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • It supports movement of people and essential goods like- food, fuel, and medical supplies in or out of the enclave.

Confuciusornis shifan

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, paleontologists have announced the discovery of a fossil beaked bird ancestor in Northeastern China.

  • The nearly complete fossil is of a beaked bird that lived in what is now China during the Early Cretaceous epoch, some 119 million years ago.

About Confuciusornis shifan:

  • Confuciusornis is a genus of extinct raven-billed bird in the family Confuciusornithidae.
  • Confuciusornithidae is a clade of Early Cretaceous pygostylian birds known from the Jehol Biota of East Asia.
  • It weighed less than 200 grams and was smaller than most other confuciusornithid species.
  • It represents the earliest known toothless, beaked birds.
  • It is different from other Mesozoic birds due to the presence of an additional cushion-like bone in the first digit of the wing.
  • This feature is significant as it may have helped the bird meet the functional demand of flight at a stage when the skeletal growth was still incomplete.

Source:  Sci.news

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which of the following is not a bird? (2022)

  1. Golden Mahseer
  2. Indian Nightjar
  3. Spoonbill
  4. White Ibis

Sari Festival “VIRAASAT”

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current affairs

In News: The second phase of the Sari Festival “VIRAASAT”- Celebrating 75 handwoven Saris of India will begin in New Delhi.

About the festival:

  • The first phase was from 16th– 30th December 2022
  • It is being organized by Ministry of Textiles
  • It will bring participation of famous handcrafted varieties of Saris like Tie and Dye, Chikan embroidered Saris, Hand Block Saris, Kalamkari printed Saris, Ajrakh, Kantha and Phulkari.
  • Some examples of saris are as follows:
  • Andhra Pradesh – uppada jamdhani sari
  • Kerela – balaramapuram sari, kasavu sari
  • Telangana – pochampally sari
  • Tamil nadu – Kancheepuram sari, arni silk sari
  • Maharashtra – paithani sari
  • Chattisgarh – tussar silk of champa
  • Rajasthan – kota doria sari
  • Gujarat – patola sari, ashawali sari
  • Madhya Pradesh – Maheshwari and chanderi sari

Source: News on air


Air Suvidha system

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Economy

In News: Union Health Minister Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya reviewed Air Suvidha system and RT-PCR testing facilities for international passengers at the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi.

What is Air Suvidha?

  • Air Suvidha is a system of self-reporting and exemption for all international passengers arriving from at-risk countries.
  • All passengers can apply online for a self-declaration/self-reporting form to declare their current health status.
  • The mandatory self-reporting application is forwarded to the Airport Health Organisation (APHO) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • Passengers can then refer to their email for the updated application document and approval.
  • Using the Self Reporting application’s request number, passengers can auto-fill the application for exemption as well.

What do International Passengers need to do?

  • All international passengers arriving in India from at-risk countries are mandated to declare their current health status on the Air Suvidha portal before boarding their flight. They also need to upload necessary documents including a copy of their passport.
  • They need to upload a negative RT-PCR report (conducted within 72 hrs before the journey) and complete a vaccination certificate/proof.
  • RT-PCR test has been made mandatory for flyers coming from China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Thailand from 1st of this month.
  • This requirement is in addition to the random two percent tests of all international passengers on all incoming international flights on their arrival to India.
  • They may need to declare the travel history of the last 14 days.
  • They may also need to quarantine for the mandated period after arrival.
  • Other details that may be required are name and personal details, flight details including seat, and PNR number of the flight. Date of arrival and complete address of arrival destination.
  • People who are exempted from mandatory institution quarantine:
  • Pregnant women
  • Those who recently suffered a death in the family.
  • Those suffering from serious illnesses (Description needed).
  • Parents accompanied by children below 10 years.
  • Those carrying COVID-19 negative certificates (RT PCR test only).
  • The exemption request form must be filled out and submitted online with supporting documents 72 hours before boarding the flight. The requests will be approved/rejected online by respective state authorities.

Source: News on air


Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Governance

In News: Number of Janaushadhi Kendras under Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) has increased by 100 times in the last eight years.

  • There are nine thousand functional kendras across the country as compared to 80 kendras in 2014-15.

Aim:

  • To provide quality medicines at an affordable rate to the common man especially the poor through dedicated outlets called ‘PM Bhartiya janaushadhi kendra’
  • the Government has set a target to increase the number of janaushadhi kendras to 10 thousand by 2024.

About the scheme:

  • It is a campaign launched by Department of Pharmaceuticals in association with Central Pharma Public Sector Undertakings
  • It provides generic medicines at much lesser prices.
  • Pharmaceutical & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI) has been established under the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. of India, with the support of all the CPSUs for co-coordinating procurement, supply and marketing of generic drugs through the Jan Aushadhi Stores.
  • The quality, safety and efficacy of medicines are ensured by getting each batch of medicines procured from CPSUs as well as private suppliers tested from NABL approved laboratories and conforming to the required standards before the same are supplied to Supers stockists /Jan Aushadhi Stores from the Warehouse of PMBI.
  • OTC (Over-the-counter) products can be purchased by any individual without a prescription. A prescription from a registered medical practitioner is necessary for the purchase of scheduled drugs.
  • More than 8604 kendra are currently functional.
  • The working hours of kendras are 8AM to 8PM

Source News on air

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which one of the following is a purpose of ‘UDAY’, a scheme of the Government? (2016)

  1. Providing technical and financial assistance to start-up entre-preneurs in the field of renewable sources of energy
  2. Providing electricity to every household iv the country by 2018
  3. Replacing the coal-based power plants with natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind and tidal power plants over a period of time.
  4. Providing for financial turnaround and revival of power distribution companies

International Year of Millets - 2023

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: The United Nations has declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets (IYM). It was an Indian Initiative. It is to make IYM 2023 a ‘People’s Movement’ alongside positioning India as the ‘Global Hub for Millets’.

About Millets:

  • It is a common term to categorise small-seeded grasses that are often termed Nutri-cereals or dryland-cereals and includes sorghum, pearl millet, ragi, small millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, barnyard millet and Kodo millet, among others.
  • They are also hardier and drought-resistant crops.
  • Millets can grow in poor soil conditions with less water, fertiliser and pesticides.
  • They can withstand higher temperatures, making them the perfect choice as ‘climate-smart cereals.

Distribution of millets production across the world:

  • India, Nigeria and China are the largest producers of millets in the world, accounting for more than 55% of the global production.
    • For many years, India was a major producer of millets.
    • However, in recent years, millet production has increased dramatically in Africa.
  • In India, pearl millet is the fourth-most widely cultivated food crop after rice, wheat and maize.
  • Millets are available almost across India.

India and millets:

  • ‘Millets’ were among the first crops to be domesticated in India with several evidence of its consumption during the Indus valley civilization.
  • In India, millets are primarily a kharif crop, requiring less water and agricultural inputs than other similar staples.
  • Millets are important by virtue of its mammoth potential to generate livelihoods, increase farmers’ income and ensure food and nutritional security all over the world.
  • Recognising the enormous potential of Millets, which also aligns with several UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Government of India (GoI) has prioritized Millets.
  • In April 2018, Millets were rebranded as “Nutri Cereals”, followed by the year 2018 being declared as the National Year of Millets, aiming at larger promotion and demand generation.
  • Almost 98% of it is just three cereals — bajra, jowar and ragi— with small millets accounting for the rest.

New invention:

  • The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has bred Pusa-1201, a hybrid bajra.
  • It gives an average grain yield of over 2.8 tonnes and potential of 4.5 tonnes per hectare.
  • It matures in 78-80 days and is resistant to downy mildew and blast, both deadly fungal diseases.
  • The grains have 13-14% protein, 55 mg/ kg iron (normal level is 50 mg/ kg) and 48 mg/ kg zinc (normal: 35 mg/ kg).

Significance of Millets:

  • Millets can also help in tackling health challenges such as obesity, diabetes and lifestyle problems as they are gluten-free, have a low glycemic index and are high in dietary fibre and antioxidants.
  • Millets are Nutri-cereals that are highly nutritious and known to have high nutrient content which includes protein, essential fatty acids, dietary fibre, B-Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc, potassium and magnesium.
  • It can provide nutritional security and protect against nutritional deficiency, especially among children and women.
  • It will also be critical for climate change measures in drylands and important for smallholder and marginal farmers.

Challenges of millets production:

  • Selling price was low but now decreasing: For the poor, both in urban and rural areas, rice and wheat were once aspirational foods.
    • But due to the Green Revolution and the National Food Security Act of 2013, two-thirds of India’s population receives up to 5 kg of wheat or rice per person per month at Rs 2 and Rs 3/kg respectively.
    • The present government has, in fact, made the issue of the two fine cereals free of cost from January 2023.
    • This move further tilted the scales against millets.
  • Work required to make it ready for eating: Even for the better-off, rolling rotis is easier with wheat than millet flour.
    • This is because the gluten proteins, for all their drawbacks, make the wheat dough more cohesive and elastic.
    • The resultant breads come out light and fluffy, which isn’t the case with bajra or jowar.
  • Low per hectare yields: For farmers, the national average is roughly 1 tonne for jowar, 1.5 tonnes for bajra and 1.7 tonnes for ragi, as against 3.5 tonnes for wheat and 4 tonnes for paddy — are a disincentive.
    • With access to assured irrigation, they would tend to switch to rice, wheat, sugarcane, or cotton.
  • Absence of Government support: The absence of government procurement at minimum support price (MSP), unlike in paddy and wheat, make farmers hesitant to grow even this high-yielding and naturally bio-fortified bajra (Pusa-1201).
  • Orphan crops: The millets have been reduced to “orphan crops” over the years, planted largely in marginal areas prone to moisture stress.

Suggestion measures:

  • Promoting Use of millets: The nutritional traits, similar to bajra, are present in other millets too: jowar (sorghum), ragi (finger millet), Kodo (Kodo millet), kutki (little millet), kakun (foxtail millet), sanwa (barnyard millet), cheena (proso millet), kuttu (buckwheat) and chaulai (amaranth).
    • Their use should also be increased.
    • Besides midday meals, millets could be served in the form of ready-to-eat foods such as cookies, laddu, murukku, nutrition bars, and extruded snacks (think healthier versions of Maggi, Kurkure, or Cheetos).
  • Huge market base for millets: India, according to the latest official data for 2021-22, has 26.52 crore children enrolled in 14.89 lakh schools from the pre-primary to higher secondary levels.
    • In addition, 71 crore children and 1.80 crore pregnant and lactating women are being provided supplementary nutrition in 13.91 lakh Anganwadis care centres.
    • Given the dire need to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition — especially iron and zinc deficiency that are major causes of anaemia and stunting respectively, while also contributing to impaired cognitive performance and vulnerability to diarrhoea — millets could be made a staple part of children’s diets.
  • One bajra meal each day in Government Schemes: Every schoolchild and Anganwadis beneficiary can be served one daily hot meal based on locally-sourced bajra, jowar, ragi, Kodo, or kutki, along with a 150-ml glass of milk and one egg.
    • It will help combat hidden hunger, besides giving a boost to crop diversification by creating demand for millions of small millet, dairy and poultry farmers.
  • The Centre has two existing schemesPradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman and Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0 — with a combined budget of Rs 30,496.82 crore in 2022-23. These can be better leveraged by making them more millets-focused.
  • Government’s funding: The Centre could fund any state willing to procure millets specific to their region exclusively for distribution through schools and Anganwadis.
    • Odisha already has a dedicated millet mission that undertook procurement of 32,302 tonnes worth Rs 109.08 crore, mainly of ragi, in 2021-22.
    • Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana might want to do the same in bajra, just as Maharashtra may for jowar, Karnataka for ragi and Madhya Pradesh for Kodo/ kutki.
  • Combined funding: A combination of central funding with decentralised procurement linked to nutrition goals — specifically the eradication of hidden hunger among school-age children — can do for millets what the Food Corporation of India achieved with rice and wheat.

Way Forward:

Therefore, it is evident that there is a need to promote the production of more millets by providing price support to farmers as there’s not only a social dimension but also a nutritional and environmental aspect associated with these cereals.

There’s a need for developing a decentralised model of processing capabilities so that the growers stand to benefit at a community level and in the growing regions. Thus, Promoting millets could help governments save expenditure on health and nutrition.

Source:   Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the “Tea Board” in India, consider the following statements:

  1. The Tea Board is a statutory body.
  2. It is a regulatory body attached to the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  3. The Tea Board’s Head Office is situated in Bengaluru.
  4. The Board has overseas office at Dubai and Moscow.

Which of the statements given above are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 and 4
  3. 3 and 4
  4. 1 and 4

Bhima-Koregaon battle

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 1 Modern history

Context:

  • The 205th anniversary of the Bhima-Koregaon battle passed without incident as lakhs of Ambedkarites from across Maharashtra and the country congregated near the Ranstambh (victory pillar) in Perne village in Pune district on Sunday under heavy security cover.
  • Keeping an ever-vigilant eye to avoid any recrudescence of the violence during the bicentenary celebrations of the battle in 2018, the Pune Rural Police strictly monitored social media, deleting over 100 posts found to contain provocative content with the possible aim of rupturing peace.
  • This is in view to avoid violence as manifested in 2018 clashes.

About the battle:

                    

  • Bhima-Koregaon is a small village in Pune district of Maharashtra
  • On January 1, 1818, a Dalit-dominated British Army had defeated a Peshwa army, led by Peshwa Bajirao II, in Koregaon.
  • The British, with just 834 infantrymen — about 500 of them from the Mahar community — and 12 officers defeated the 28,000-strong army of Peshwa Bajirao II.
  • It was one of the last battles of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, which ended the Peshwa domination.
  • The battle attained a legendary stature for Dalits, who consider the win as a victory of the Mahars against the injustices perpetuated by the Peshwas.
  • A pillar, known as Vijay Sthamb (victory pillar), was installed by the East India Company in memory of those who fought for them in the battle. It is at this pillar that thousands of Dalits come to pay respect every year on January 1.

Who Were the Mahars?

  • Historically, Mahars were considered untouchables.
  • But the nature of their work, often in administration or military roles, situated them with upper castes quite regularly
  • Maratha King Shivaji recruited a number of Mahars into the Maratha army in the 17th century. The Mahar men often served as guards or soldiers.
  • Mahar community even fought alongside Peshwa forces in many battles, including the third battle of Panipat.
  • However, relations between the Mahars and Peshwas turned sour after Baji Rao II reportedly insulted the community by rejecting their offer to join and serve in his army.

Significance of the battle:

  • In 1928, B. R. Ambedkar had led the first commemoration ceremony. Since then, every year on January 1, Ambedkarites gather at Bhima Koregaon to celebrate their victory against the upper caste Peshwa regime of the Maratha Empire, whom they see as their oppressors.
  • Mahar Dalits faced several injustices under the Peshwa rule.
  • This victory, therefore, was significant for the Dalits who had been marginalised and oppressed for so long.
  • It provides a rallying point and an assertion of pride for Mahar community.
  • It was a fight against untouchability, and for self-respect and equality.
  • The victory had become “a voice of identity for the downtrodden”.

Controversy and challenges:

  • The annual celebrations in 2018 were marred by violence leading to death of one person and injuries to several others.
  • Police investigation into the incident led to the arrest of several activists who they alleged had “Maoist links”.
  • The police alleged that they funded the Elgar Parishad meeting on December 31, 2017, where inflammatory speeches were made, according to police, leading to the violence.
  • The 2018 clashes heightened social tensions across the State and resulted in massive destruction of property belonging to Ambedkarite members.
  • Since then, Ambedkarite outfits have accused the State police of dragging their feet over investigations into the clashes
  • Outfits like the Pune-based Republican Yuva Morcha (RYM) have charged the former BJP regime of shielding the alleged perpetrators of the violence, including radical Hindutva leaders Milind Ekbote and Sambhaji Bhide.
  • Several arrests were made in case Pune Police arrested Surendra Gadling, Sudhir Dhawale, Rona Wilson, Shoma Sen and Mahesh Raut with alleged Maoist links for inciting violence. Later on, a few more were arrested, including activists Varavara Rao, lawyer Sudha Bhardwaj and activists Arun Ferreira and Gautam Navlakha
  • There is concern of politicisation of Dalits against Hindutva, particularly after the Una violence in Gujarat.

Way forward:

  • History has been, and still is, twisted by vested interests to exploit, existing or imaginary, fault lines within the Indian society.
  • However, the Bhima-Koregaon Ranstambh Seva Sangh (BKRSS) is regarded as a site of positive memory of Dalit’s valour and a symbol of their renewed political aspiration.

Source The hindu


Baba’s Explainer – Free Foodgrain Scheme

Free Foodgrain Scheme

Syllabus

  • GS-1: Indian Society, Urbanisation and problems
  • GS-2: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
  • GS-2: Fundamental Rights.

Context: The Election Commission (EC) has recently announced that it is ready to pilot remote voting for domestic migrants, so they don’t have to travel back to their home states to vote. This comes on the back of EC’s acknowledgement of migration-based disenfranchisement.

Read Complete Details on Free Foodgrain Scheme


Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to “VIRAASAT” scheme, consider the following statements

  1. It is a scheme of Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  2. It aims to promote famous handcrafted varieties of Saris

Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to ‘Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana’, it has been created for which of the following objectives?

  1. To increase the penetration of ayurvedic medicines
  2. To provide low cost generic medicines to poor
  3. To increase private investment in medicinal research
  4. To regularise over-the-counter drug sale

Q.3) Which of the following countries are part of Schengen Zone, which is often mentioned in news?

  1. Poland
  2. Germany
  3. Romania
  4. Ireland

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 2 and 3 only
  2. 2 3 and 4 only
  3. 1 2 and 4 only
  4. 1 3 and 4 only

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 3rd January 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st


ANSWERS FOR 2nd January – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – b

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