DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 4th July 2023

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  • July 4, 2023
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Alluri Sitarama Raju


  • Prelims –History

Context: Recently, President Droupadi Murmu attended the birth anniversary of legendary freedom fighter 125th Alluri Sitarama Raju in Hyderabad.


  • The 125th birth anniversary of Alluri Sitarama Raju was celebrated in Hyderabad on 4th July 2023.
  • A 3D animation on the life of the revolutionary freedom fighter was also launched on the occasion.

About Alluri Sitarama Raju:-

  • Born on: July 4, 1897, in Andhra Pradesh. (UPSC CSE: Alluri Sitarama Raju )
  • He was nicknamed “Manyam Veerudu” (Hero of the Jungle) by local villagers for his heroic exploits.
  • He was an Indian revolutionary who waged an armed campaign against British colonial rule in India.
  • Sitarama Raju, under the influence of Gandhi’s Non-cooperation movement, inspired the tribals to seek justice in the local panchayat courts and boycott the colonial courts.
  • He started to work for the Adivasi of the Eastern Ghats, who were living in abject poverty and being fleeced by police, forest and revenue officials.
  • Rampa Rebellion: He launched the Rampa Rebellion against the British in 1922.

The Rampa Rebellion

  • Launched: 1922 was a tribal uprising.
  • Leader: Alluri Sitarama Raju.
  • Location: Godavari Agency of Madras Presidency, British India.
  • The Rampa administrative area was home to about 28,000 tribes.
  • Cause of rebellion: the passing of the 1882 Madras Forest Act.
    • 1882 Madras Forest Act: it restricted the free movement of Adivasis in their forest habitats and prevented them from practising a traditional form of agriculture known as
  • Tools: He utilized sporting traditional weaponry like bow-and-arrow and spears and employed tactics like using whistles and beating drums to exchange messages amongst themselves.
  • War technique: Guerrilla warfare: His deep understanding of the forest terrain and skilful use of tribal war tactics made him a highly successful guerrilla warrior who struck terror in the hearts of the British.
  • Death: In 1924, Raju was taken into police custody, tied to a tree, and shot, effectively ending the armed rebellion.

Legacy and Recognition of Alluri Sitarama Raju:

  • Postal stamp: The Independent Indian Government released a postal stamp in his honour at the village of Mogallu, considered by many to be his birthplace.
  • In 2022, the Government of Andhra Pradesh carved out a new district named after Alluri from the erstwhile Visakhapatnam district.
  • Bronze statue: Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled a 30-foot tall bronze statue of revolutionary fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju at Pedda Amiram village in West Godavari district.
  • Every year, the Government of Andhra Pradesh commemorates his birth date, the 4th of July, as a state festival.

MUST READ: Tribal Freedom Fighters’ Museums



Q.1) Consider the following freedom fighters: (2022)

  1. Barindra Kumar Ghosh
  2. Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee
  3. Rash Behari Bose

Who of the above was/were actively associated with the Ghadar Party?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Q.2) With reference to the history of India, Ulgulan or the Great Tumult is the description of which of the following events? (2020)

  1. The Revolt of 1857
  2. The Mappila Rebellion of 1921
  3. The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60
  4. Birsa Munda’s Revolt of 1899-1900

National Anti-Doping Agency


  • Prelims – Important Institutions

Context: Recently, the National Anti-Doping Agency, India today signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the South Asia Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (SARADO).


  • The Memorandum of Understanding was signed in New Delhi.
  • It aims to increase Regional Cooperation in anti-doping in Sports.

About National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA):-

Historical Background:-

  • NADA was set up as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act in 2005 with a mandate for Dope-free sports in India.
    • Doping: use of prohibited medications, drugs, or treatments by athletes with the intention of improving athletic performance.
  • 2022: The National Anti-doping Bill was passed to make NADA a statutory body.

Objectives of NADA:-

  • To implement anti-doping rules as per the World Anti-Doping Code (Code).
    • WADA: it was established in 1999 and is headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
    • Objectives: to develop, harmonize and coordinate anti-doping rules and policies across all sports and countries.
    • World Anti-Doping Code (Code): it is the core document that harmonizes anti-doping policies, rules, and regulations within sports organizations and among public authorities around the world.
  • To promote education and research.
  • To create awareness about doping and its ill effects.

Functions of NADA:-

  • To implement the Anti-Doping Code to achieve compliance by all sports organizations in the Country.
  • To coordinate dope testing program through all participating stakeholders.
  • To promote anti-doping research and education to inculcate the value of dope-free sports.
  • To adopt best practice standards and quality systems to enable effective implementation and continual improvement of the program.

South Asia Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (SARADO)

  • Formation: 2007.
    • It was formed on 16th May 2007 at the South Asian Anti-Doping Program Project Development Meeting held in Maldives.
  • HQ: Maldives.
  • Objective: to promote and coordinate the fight against doping in sports in all its forms among South Asia Regional Anti-Doping Organization(RADO) member countries.
  • Members: It is comprised of Anti-Doping Organisations from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

MUST READ: Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act



Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the 44th Chess Olympiad, 2022: (2023)

  1. It was the first time that Chess Olympiad was held in India.
  2. The official mascot was named Thambi.
  3. The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Vera Menchik Cup.
  4. The trophy for the winning team in the women’s section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Chenchu tribals


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: Recently, the Chenchu tribals, joined the drive to make Nallamala forests of Andhra Pradesh free of plastic.


  • Eco-tourism, nature trails, jungle safaris and wildlife tourism brought the menace of plastic pollution.
  • The native Chenchu tribals have been roped in for a drive to become the green warriors of the Nallamala forests of Andhra Pradesh.

About Chenchu tribals:-

  • The Chenchu are a tiny migratory forest tribe from
  • They migrate over the state lines of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in search of work.
  • They are a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG).
    • PVTG: is a sub-classification of a Scheduled Tribe or section of a Scheduled Tribe that is considered more vulnerable than a regular Scheduled Tribe.
  • Language: they talk in the Chenchu language, a member of the Dravidian language family.
  • Dravidian languages family: a language family spoken by people, mainly in southern India, northeast Sri Lanka, and south-west Pakistan.
    • It includes Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam.
  • Distribution: They are forest dwellers whose hamlets or Pentas dot the Nallamala forest range spread across four to five districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states.
    • They dwell in little homes with wattle dividers that look like colonies.
    • They are magnificent climbers.
  • Features: they are low in height, with a long head, clear-cut foreheads, and a level nose.
    • Their coloring goes from wheat dark to brown, and they have ebony wavy hair.
  • Occupation: Their traditional way of life has been based on hunting and gathering.
    • They make leaf cups and leaf plates out of tobacco leaves, tamarind, and mahua flowers and sell them in the local marker.
    • They also make use of the mahua flower in making the liquor.
    • They are also master bamboo cutters and honey catchers.

Nallamala Forest Area

IMAGE SOURCE: semanticscholar.org|

  • They are the largest stretches of undisturbed forest in South India, apart from the Western Ghats.
  • Location: It is located in Nallamala Hills, which is a part of the Eastern Ghats.
    • It lies south of the Krishna River.
    • Nallamala Forest Reserve is located in the Nallamala Ranges of the Eastern Ghats.
    • A part of the forest reserve belongs to the Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve which is the largest Tiger Reserve in India. (UPSC CSE: Amrabad Tiger Reserve)
  • Climate: It has a warm to hot climate throughout the year.
    • Summer is especially hot and winters are mostly cool and dry.
    • It gets most of its rain during the South West monsoon.
  • Vegetation: Tropical dry deciduous.
  • Fauna: tigers, leopards, such as black buck, wild hog, peacock, pangolin, Indian Python King Cobras and several rare bird species.

MUST READ: Wildlife Conservation in Arunachal Pradesh



Q.1) Consider the following statements : (2023)

  1. Amarkantak Hills are at the confluence of the Vindhya and Sahyadri Ranges.
  2. Biligirirangan Hills constitute the easternmost part of the Satpura Range.
  3. Seshachalam Hills constitute the southernmost part of the Western Ghats.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India: (2019)

  1. PVTGs reside in 18 States and one Union Territory.
  2. A stagnant or declining population is one of the criteria for determining PVTG status.
  3. There are 95 PVTGs officially notified in the country so far.
  4. Irular and Konda Reddi tribes are included in the list of PVTGs.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1, 2 and 4
  4. 1, 3 and 4

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) issued a ‘red alert’ against poachers and hunters in  tiger reserves.


  • The red alert is issued for six tiger reserves across India, including two of Madhya Pradesh and three districts of MP, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
  • The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and climate change has issued a ‘red alert’ directing the authorities to visit all tiger reserves.

About Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB):-

  • It is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established under Wildlife (Protection) Act (WLPA), 1972.
  • Objective: to combat organized wildlife crime in the country. (UPSC CSE: WCCB wins Asia Environmental Enforcement Award-2020)
  • Establishment: 2007.
    • It was established by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act (WLPA), 1972, a special Act to protect the wildlife and fauna in the country.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Environment, Forest and climate change.
  • HQ: New Delhi.
  • Regional offices: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur
  • Sub-regional offices: at Amritsar, Guwahati, and Cochin; and five borders.

Functions of WCCB:-

  • To collect and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities.
  • To disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies for immediate action so as to apprehend the criminals.
  • To establish a centralized wildlife crime data bank;
  • To coordinate actions by various agencies in connection with the enforcement of the provisions of the Act.
  • To assist foreign authorities and international organizations concerned to facilitate coordination and universal action for wildlife crime control.
  • Capacity building of the wildlife crime enforcement agencies for a scientific and professional investigation into wildlife crimes and assist State Governments.
  • To ensure success in prosecutions related to wildlife crimes.
  • To advise the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications.
  • To make relevant policies and laws.
  • It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in the inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna as per the provisions of the Wild Life Protection Act, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and EXIM Policy governing such an item.
    • CITES: a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals from the threats of international trade.

MUST READ: Wildlife Institute of India (WII)



Q.1) Consider the following statements :

  1. In India, the Biodiversity Management Committees are key to the realization of the objectives of the Nagoya Protocol.
  2. The Biodiversity Management Committees have important functions in determining access and benefit sharing, including the power to levy collection fees on the access of biological resources within its jurisdiction.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to Indian laws about wildlife protection, consider the following statements  (2022)

  1. Wild animals are the sole property of the government.
  2. When a wild animal is declared protected, such animal is entitled to equal protection whether it is found in protected areas or outside.
  3. Apprehension of a protected wild animal becoming a danger to human life is sufficient ground for its capture or killing.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Hul Diwas


  • Prelims –History

Context: Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted about Hul Diwas.


  • Every year, the state of Jharkhand celebrates June 30 as ‘Hul Diwas’, marking the beginning of the Santhala rebellion.
  • Objective: remembering the sacrifice of Adivasis in their fight against British colonial authorities.

About Hul Diwas:-

IMAGE SOURCE: missioninfobank.org

  • ‘Hul Diwas’, marks the beginning of the Santhal rebellion. (UPSC CSE: The Revolt of 1857)
  • Launch: 30th June1855.
  • Leaders: Sidhu, Kanhu, Bhairav, and also their two sisters Phulo and Jhano.
  • Region of rebellion: The rebellion took place in the Damin-i-Koh region.
    • Damin-i-Koh’: it means the ‘skirts of the hills’ in the present-day Jharkhand around the Rajmahal Hills.
  • Causes for Rebellion: It was an organised war against colonialism against the oppression by the British and their collaborators such as Zamindars, and the police.
  • Tribal councils and meetings discussed the possibility of rebellion, leading to a massive assembly of over 6,000 Santhals on June 30, 1855, marking the beginning of the rebellion.
  • Led by Sidhu and Kanhu, the Santhals rose against the British, attacking symbols of colonial rule and executing moneylenders and zamindars.
  • The rebellion saw participation from 32 communities, both tribals and non-tribals.
  • Phulo-Jhano, two sisters, led an army of 1,000 women, playing crucial roles in providing food supply, gathering information, and attacking British camps.
  • The East India Company’s army was defeated twice during the rebellion.
  • Impact of rebellion: The Hul rebellion symbolized resistance against British colonialism and laid the foundation for subsequent movements in Jharkhand.


  • Migration: In the late 18th century the Santal people migrated to Santhal Pargana (currently in districts of Dumka, Pakur, Godda, Sahibganj, Deoghar and parts of Jamtara) from West Bengal (Birbhum and Manbhum).
  • Reason for migration: 1770 famine in Bengal.
  • British settled them in the Damin-i-Koh region for the purpose of collecting tax and generating revenue.
  • However, once settled, the Santals bore the brunt of colonial oppression.
  • They were further exploited by money lenders and the police.
  • All this resulted in the Santhal rebellion.
  • Current status:-
    • The Santal community is the third largest tribal community in India.
    • It is spread across Jharkhand-Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal.

MUST READ: Integrating tribal knowledge systems



Q.1) By which one of the following Acts was the Governor General of Bengal, designated as the Governor General of India? (2023)

  1. The Regulating Act
  2. The Pitt’s India Act
  3. The Charter Act of 1793
  4. The Charter Act of 1833

Q.2) With reference to India, the terms ‘Halbi, Ho and Kui’ pertain to (2022)

  1. dance forms of Northwest India
  2. musical instruments
  3. pre-historic cave paintings
  4. tribal languages

Sturgeon species


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recent reports suggest that poaching is the biggest threat to sturgeon species in the River Danube.

Key Findings of the report:-

  • As many as 337 cases of illegal activities involving the fish were reported from 2016-2022 in the Danube River.
  • Bulgaria recorded the highest number (130) of such cases that included violations of fishing bans and regulations, seizures of illegal fishing gear and the illicit trade of sturgeon and sturgeon-based products.
  • It was followed by Romania (125) and Ukraine (82).
  • Main hotspots: Vratsa in Bulgaria, Tulcea in Romania, and Odesa in Ukraine.
  • Incidents of trafficking: As much as 20 per cent of the sturgeon samples collected from the fish markets in these countries were wild fish and did not come from farms.
    • This was another indicator of the rampant sturgeon trafficking occurring in these places.
  • Corruption: the report highlighted that the poaching rings and illegal fishers often work with the connivance of corrupt officials of the government’s fishing departments who accept bribes.
  • Mitigation Solutions: Innovative approaches involving advanced technology have helped curb the menace.
    • Inter-agency cooperation and coordination for controlling the different parts of the trade chain can also be helpful.

About Sturgeon species:-

  • Sturgeons are ancient migratory fish.
  • Sturgeons have existed since the time of dinosaurs, for about 200 million years.
  • They are called ‘living fossils’ because their appearance has altered very little over the years.
    • Living Fossil: an organism that has remained unchanged from earlier geologic times and whose close relatives are usually extinct.
  • They are considered the world’s most endangered species.
  • Habitat:-
    • There are 27 species of sturgeons and paddlefishes distributed across the Northern Hemisphere.
    • While some species inhabit only freshwater, most species are anadromous.
    • Anadromous: spawning in freshwater but spending much of their life history in marine or brackish environments.
  • Danube sturgeons live mostly in the Black Sea, migrating up the Danube and other major rivers to produce eggs:
  • Three of the four sturgeon species found in the River Danube:—
    • Beluga: critically endangered (IUCN)
    • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Red List of Threatened Species.
    • Stellate: critically endangered (IUCN)
    • Russian sturgeon: critically endangered (IUCN)
    • Sterlet: Endangered (IUCN) (UPSC CSE: IUCN updates the Red list of species)
  • Two more species of the family, the European sturgeon and the ship sturgeon, that used to swim in the waters of the Danube have been declared extinct locally.
  • Significance: Because the sturgeons live for so many years, mature late and spawn with long intervals, they take a long time to recover from environmental and human pressures.
    • This makes them great indicators for the health of the river and other ecological parameters.

MUST READ: Invasive Species



Q.1) Which of the following is not a bird? (2021)

  1. Golden Mahseer
  2. Indian Nightjar
  3. Spoonbill
  4. White Ibis

Q.2) Certain species of which one of the following organisms are well known as cultivators of

fungi? (2021)

  1. Ant
  2. Cockroach
  3. Crab
  4. Spider


Criminalisation of politics in India


  • Mains – GS 2 (Polity and Governance)

Context: The Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) wrote to the Election Commission seeking action against parties that fail to publish details of criminal antecedents of candidates as per orders of the Supreme Court and the poll panel.

About Criminalisation of Politics:

  • Criminalization of politics is defined as the situation when criminals participate in the politics of the government, i.e., contest elections and are elected to the Parliament and state legislatures.
  • This growing menace has become a big problem for our society, affecting the basic principles of democracy, such as fairness in elections, following the law, and being accountable.
  • According to data from the ADR, the number of candidates with criminal charges elected to Parliament in India has been on the rise since 2004.
  • In 2004, 24% of parliamentarians had pending criminal cases, which rose to 43% in 2019.
  • In a petition filed in Feb 2023, it was claimed that there has been an increase of 44% in the number of MPs with declared criminal cases since 2009.
  • In the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, 159 MPs had declared serious criminal cases against them, including those of rape, murder, attempt to murder, kidnapping, crimes against women.

Causes of criminalization of politics

  • Muscle power: An ideology that works behind adopting the method of muscle power is that if one party cannot secure faith in society, then fear and violence may aid them in the same.
    • When there is a nexus between political parties and criminals, the most dangerous elements in society take birth.
  • Money power: Black money and funds from the mafia are also significant causes of criminalization in politics.
    • Money accumulated through unlawful acts also acts as one of the primary reasons for increasing criminalization in politics
  • Corruption: When contempt of law combines with the criminalization of politics, it gives birth to flourishing corruption.
    • Growing corruption ultimately leads to the criminalization of politics.
  • Divisions in the Indian political system: The Indian political system is based on divisions in which our Indian society exists.
    • Criminals take advantage of this division and enter the arena of politics.
    • People tend to vote based on the candidates’ caste, ethnicity, religion, community, and linguistic lineage.
  • No retirement policy in Indian politics: There is no retirement policy for Lok Sabha members, and hence some members never retire.
    • The issue of family fiefdom seriously jeopardizes the careers of budding politicians and lawyers.

Effects of criminalization of politics:

  • Hampering free and fair election: limited choice of voters to elect a candidate to parliament or state.
    • It is against the spirit of free and fair election, which is the bedrock of a democracy.
  • Unhealthy democratic practice: The major problem is that the law-breakers become lawmakers; this affects the efficacy of the democratic process in delivering good governance.
    • These unhealthy tendencies in the democratic system reflect a poor image of the nature of India’s state institutions and the quality of its elected representatives.
  • Circulation of black money: It also leads to increased circulation of black money during and after elections, which in turn increases corruption in society and affects the working of public servants.
  • Culture of violence: it introduces a culture of violence in society, sets a bad precedent for the youth to follow, and reduces people’s faith in democracy as a system of governance.
  • Weakening the institutions: This is a pervasive malaise in our body politic, which is assuming cancerous proportions.
    • As a result, the three main pillars of our democracy, namely, Parliament, judiciary and executive, are progressively weakened, and the fundamental concept of a democratic system is subverted.

Measures to Curb Criminalization of Politics:

Section 125A of the Representation of Peoples Act:

  • The Act should be amended, in order to provide more stringent punishment for concealing or providing wrong information in Form 26 under the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961 to a minimum term of two years’ imprisonment.

Second Administrative Reforms Commission:

  • It recommended amending the Section 8 of Representation of People Act, 1951 for disqualifying persons who are facing charges related to heinous crimes and corruption, if charges are framed 6 months before the election.
  • Bringing greater transparency in campaign financing is going to make it less attractive for political parties to involve gangsters.

Supreme Court Landmark Judgements:

  • Association for Democratic Reforms v. Union of India (2002): In 2002, the SC ruled that every candidate contesting election has to declare his criminal and financial records along with educational qualifications.
  • Lily Thomas v. Union of India (2013): The SC has declared that any member of parliament or state legislative assembly who is convicted of a crime and sentenced to a prison term of two years or more would be disqualified from holding office.
  • Public Interest Foundation v. Union of India (2019): The SC has ordered political parties to publish the criminal records of their candidates on their websites, social media handles, and newspapers.
    • The court also directed the ECI to create a framework to ensure that the information on candidates’ criminal records was disseminated effectively.

Way Forward:

The criminalization of politics and corruption hits the roots of democracy. There should be wide publicity of the candidates with criminal records, who are contesting in an election and the political parties that give them support.

There is a need to bring greater transparency in the campaign financing of political parties. The political parties must be brought under the Right to Information Act to improve their transparency and accountability. The Parliament should enact a law dealing with increased criminalization of politics. Further, of courts dealing with sitting legislators would be crucial for the decriminalization of politics.

Source:   Indian Express

Regulating Freedom of Speech on Social Media


  • Mains – GS 2 (Polity and Governance)

Context: Recently, The Karnataka High Court admonished Twitter for not complying with the blocking orders by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

About Freedom of Expression and its restrictions in India

Freedom of Expression:

Restriction on freedom:

  • However this Freedom under Article 19 is also not absolute. It faces certain restrictions under Article 19(2), which are as follows:
    • Matters related to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India,
    • the security of the State,
    • friendly relations with foreign States,
    • public order,
    • decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court,
    • defamation or incitement to an offence.

Constitutionality of the blocking orders

Information Technology Act, 2000: Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, empowers the state to issue blocking orders in cases of emergency on the grounds such as

  • Sovereignty and integrity of India,
  • Defence of India,
  • Security of the State,
  • Friendly relations with foreign States,
  • Public order or
  • For preventing incitement to the commission of any cognizable offence relating to the above.

The Information Technology Rules, 2009:

  • The Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking for Access of Information by Public) Rules, 2009 (Blocking Rules) lays down the procedure for any blocking order issued under Section 69A.

Karnataka High Court’s recent Judgement

Dismissal of Twitter’s challenge:

  • The Karnataka High Court dismissed Twitter’s challenge to the issuance of blocking orders by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in connection with the taking down of Twitter accounts and specific tweets.

Turn from the Shreya Singhal case:

  • The Karnataka High Court has held that observations in Shreya Singhal cannot be construed to mean providing notice to the users of the content, and that even if reasons are recorded in writing, they may not be conveyed to the user.
  • Additionally, the High Court held that claims of users whose tweets or accounts were blocked could not be espoused by Twitter and that none of the affected users had approached the High Court.

Concern raised over the Judgement:

  • Undermining Free Speech and Expression: The judgment is seen as undermining the fundamental right to free speech and expression.
    • It allows the state to exercise unchecked power in taking down content on the grounds of the dissemination of false speech.
  • Lack of Procedural Safeguards: The High Court’s ruling disregards the importance of providing notice to users whose content is being blocked and fails to convey the reasons for blocking.
  • In Shreya Singhal vs Union of India, the Supreme Court of India upheld the validity of Section 69A and the Blocking Rules after observing that sufficient procedural safeguards were embedded, such as provision of recording a reasoned order, and providing notice to the intermediary and the originator whose content was sought to be blocked.
  • Misuse of “Fake News” Rhetoric: The High Court justified blocking orders based on the spread of “fake news” and “misinformation” threatening public order and state security.
    • However, these grounds are not valid for restricting free speech under Article 19(2) and Section 69A.
    • The Supreme Court has repeatedly held that there must be a direct link between the speech and the potential threat to public order.
  • Disproportionate Blocking Practices: The High Court rejected Twitter’s argument that Section 69A permits the blocking of specific tweets only.
    • Instead, it allowed wholesale blocking of Twitter accounts, constituting prior restraint on freedom of speech and expression.
    • This disproportionate blocking practice restricts future speech and has the potential to create a chilling effect on the freedom of speech of online platform users.
  • Erosion of Natural Justice: The judgment subverts the principles of natural justice, which dictate that the affected party should be allowed to present their case to the best of their abilities.

Way Forward:

To protect freedom of speech, it is imperative to strengthen procedural safeguards in the process of blocking content to protect the freedom of speech and expression and uphold judicial precedents established to safeguard freedom of speech.

Source: The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements


National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) is under the Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs.


NADA is a constitutional body.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-11 is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q2) Consider the following pairs:

  1. Beluga: critically endangered
  2. Stellate: critically endangered
  3. Russian sturgeon: critically endangered
  4. Sterlet: Endangered

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q3) Consider the following statements


The santhal rebellion began in 1857.


It was led by Sidhu, Kanhu, Bhairav, and also their two sisters Phulo and Jhano.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-11 is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement-II is correct

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 4th July 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 3rd July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – c

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