DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 21st August 2023

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  • August 21, 2023
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Green Hydrogen Standard


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: The Government has notified the Green Hydrogen Standard for India for the progress of the National Green Hydrogen Mission.

About Green Hydrogen Standard:-

  • Issued in 2023.
  • Issued by: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • Objectives: progress of the National Green Hydrogen Mission (NGHM).
    • NGHM: It is a part of the National Hydrogen Mission (NHM) which was announced by the finance minister in the Union Budget 2021-22.
    • Its objective was to make India a global hub for the production and export of green hydrogen and fulfill India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
  • The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has defined Green Hydrogen through these standards.
  • The standard, outlines the emission thresholds that must be met in order for hydrogen produced to be classified as Green.
  • Definition: Green Hydrogen is defined as having a well-to-gate emission including water treatment, electrolysis, gas purification, drying, and compression of hydrogen of not more than 2 kg CO2 equivalent/kg H2.
    • The definition encompasses both electrolysis-based and biomass-based hydrogen production methodology.
    • Electrolysis: a chemical process that involves using an electric current to drive a non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
  • Methodology: A detailed methodology for measurement, reporting, monitoring, on-site verification, and certification of green hydrogen and its derivatives shall be specified by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
  • Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power: it shall be the Nodal Authority for accreditation of agencies for the monitoring, verification, and certification of Green Hydrogen production projects.


  • The Green Hydrogen Standard bring a lot of clarity to the Green Hydrogen community in India and was widely awaited.
  • With this, India became one of the first few countries in the world to announce a definition of Green Hydrogen.

Green hydrogen:-

  • Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. (Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Vehicles)
  • It exists only in combination with other elements.
    • Thus, it has to be extracted from natural compounds, like water.
  • Based on the extraction process, Hydrogen is categorized into:-
  • Grey hydrogen: produced from fossil fuels.
  • Blue hydrogen: produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage.
  • Green Hydrogen: produced entirely from renewable power sources. ( Green Hydrogen).

Advantages of Green Hydrogen:-

  • Environment Friendly.
  • Reduced Dependence on Rare Minerals.
  • Reduces Import Bill.
  • Efficient utilization of Renewable Energy.

MUST READ: India’s first pure green hydrogen plant commissioned



Q.1) With reference to coal-based thermal power plants in India, consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. None of them uses seawater.
  2. None of them is set up in a water-stressed district.
  3. None of them is privately owned.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) Which one of the following has been constituted under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986? (2022)

  1. Central Water Commission
  2. Central Ground Water Board
  3. Central Ground Water Authority
  4. National Water Development Agency

International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA)


  • Prelims –Important Awards

Context: India secured Second Rank at the 16th International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA).

Key highlights of IOAA 2023:-

  • The United Kingdom clinched the lead with five Golds.
  • India has secured Second Rank with four medals.

About International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA):-

  • Edition: 16th.
  • Organized by: International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA).
  • Venue: Chorzów, Poland.
  • First IOAA: was held from 30th November to 9th December 2007.
  • Objective: to commemorate the 80th birth anniversary of the King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and the 84th birth anniversary of the Princess Galyani Vadhana of Thailand. (India & Thailand)

MUST READ: Chess Olympiad



Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the 44th Chess Olympiad, 2022: (2023)

  1. It was the first time that Chess Olympiad was held in India.
  2. The official mascot was named Thambi’.
  3. The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Vera Menchik Cup.
  4. The trophy for the winning team in the women’s section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Consider the following statements in respect of the Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards. (2021)

  1. Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards are titled under Article 18(1) of the Constitution of India.
  2. Padma Awards, which were instituted in the year 1954, were suspended only once.
  3. The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of five in a particular year.

Which of the above statements is not correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA)


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: Recently, Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla  inaugurated the 9th India Region Conference of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA).


  • It was the 9th India Region Conference of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA).
  • Theme: Strengthening Democracy and Good Governance in the Digital Age.

About Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA):-

  • Founded: 1911.
  • HQ: London, UK.

Historical Background:-

  • The CPA was founded in 1911 as the Empire Parliamentary Association (EPA).
  • It was registered as a charity on 22 October 1971 under the laws of the United Kingdom.

Salient Features:-

  • It is an association to serve the Parliamentarians of the Commonwealth Countries.
  • Objective: to promote closer understanding and cooperation for common purposes between those engaged in the Parliamentary form of Countries of the Commonwealth.
  • Mission: to promote knowledge of the constitutional, legislative, economic, social, and cultural aspects of parliamentary democracy, with particular reference to the countries of the Commonwealth.
  • It provides the machinery for regular consultation and exchange of ideas and information among members of Commonwealth Parliaments.

India’s commonwealth membership:-

  • India was a dominion from 1947 to 1950 till our constitution became effective.
  • 1949: India’s constituent assembly ratified the membership of the association declaring continuation of full membership.
  • India has been playing an important role at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meet (CHOGM).
  • 1983: India also hosted the 24th commonwealth summit in New Delhi.

MUST READ: (Commonwealth & Commonwealth Advantage)



Q.1) What was the exact constitutional status of India on 26th January 1950? (2022)

  1. A Democratic Republic
  2. A Sovereign Democratic Republic
  3. A Sovereign Secular Democratic Republic
  4. A Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic

Q.2) With reference to Indian history, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Dutch established their factories/warehouses on the east coast on lands granted to them by the Gajapati rulers.
  2. Alfonso de Albuquerque captured Goa from the Bijapur Sultanate.
  3. The English East India company established a factory at Madras on a plot of land leased from a representative of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

15th BRICS Summit


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: During his visit to Johannesburg in South Africa, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will attend the 15th BRICS Summit.


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be on a three-day visit to Johannesburg in South Africa from 22nd to 24th August 2023.

About the 15th BRICS Summit:-


  • Establishment:2009.
  • Members: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • First BRICS Summit: 2009, Russian Federation.
  • Previous BRICS summit/14th BRICS Summit: 2022, China.
  • 15th BRICS Summit: 2023, South Africa.
  • ‘BRICS’ is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. (BRICS)
  • Naming: the British Economist Jim O’Neill coined the term “BRIC” in 2001 to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
  • Chairmanship: rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
  • Together, BRICS accounts for about 40% of the world’s population and about 30% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 16% of the global trade.
  • Initiatives: New Development Bank (NDB), Contingent Reserve Arrangement, BRICS Payment System Customs Agreements, Remote Sensing Satellite.
  • New Initiative: BRICS is planning to launch its own “new currency” system, a major step towards de-dollarization.
    • De-dollarization: reducing dependence on the US dollar for trade.

Objectives of BRICS:-

  • To deepen, broaden and intensify cooperation within the grouping and among the individual countries for more sustainable, equitable, and mutually beneficial development.
  • It takes into consideration each member’s growth, development, and poverty objectives.
  • It is emerging as a new and promising political-diplomatic entity with diverse objectives.

India and BRICS:-

  • India is a founding member of BRICS.
  • It conducted the 13th BRICS Summit in 2021 in New Delhi.

Importance of BRICS for India:-

  • Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG) membership: India is engaged with the other BRICS countries on its NSG membership.
  • Funds for infrastructure: NDB will help India raise and avail resources for their infrastructure and sustainable development projects.
  • SUMMITS held in India: India hosted the 13th BRICS summit in 2021.
  • Science and Technology: An agreement on BRICS Cooperation on Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation was signed.

MUST READ: New Development Bank



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2016)

  1. New Development Bank has been set up by APEC.
  2. The headquarters of the New Development Bank is in Shanghai.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) The ‘Fortaleza Declaration’ recently in the news, is related to the affairs of:(2015)

  1. ASEAN
  2. BRICS
  3. OECD
  4. WTO



  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: A teen and victim of Psoriasis, Ryan Moslin has become part of a team that invented a drug for the disease.

About Psoriasis:-

  • It is a chronic autoimmune condition.
    • Autoimmune condition: in this the immune system which is supposed to destroy foreign invaders, like bacteria, mistakes healthy cells for foreign invaders and destroys them.
  • It causes the rapid buildup of skin cells.
  • This buildup of cells causes scaling on your skin’s surface.
  • It causes a rash with itchy, scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk, and scalp.
  • Causes: An over-reactive immune system that creates inflammation in your skin causes psoriasis.
  • Duration: The condition tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while.
  • Transmission: It is not contagious. (National Centres for Disease Control (NCDC))

Symptoms of Psoriasis:-

  • Raised, inflamed patches of skin that appear red on light skin and brown or purple on dark skin.
  • Whitish-silver scales or plaques on the red patches or grey scales on the purple and brown patches.
  • Dry skin that may crack and bleed.
  • Soreness around patches.
  • Itching and burning sensations around patches.
  • Thick, pitted nails.
  • Painful, swollen joints.

Treatment of Psoriasis:-

  • It is a common, long-term (chronic) disease with no cure. (National Non-Communicable Disease Monitoring Survey (NNMS))
  • Treatments aim to reduce inflammation and scales, slow the growth of skin cells, and remove plaques.
  • Common psoriasis treatments include:-
    • Steroid creams.
    • Moisturizers for dry skin.
    • Medication to slow skin cell production (anthralin).
    • Medicated lotions or shampoos.
    • Vitamin D3 ointment.
    • Vitamin A or retinoid creams.

 MUST READ: Disease Surveillance System



Q.1). Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body? (2022)

  1. They protect the environmental allergens. body
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from diseases caused by pathogens.

Q.2) In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of the egg.
  2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from the mother and not from the father.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Tachymenoides harrisonfordi


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, a new snake species ‘Tachymenoides harrisonfordi’ has been named after Hollywood actor Harrison Ford.


  • Researchers from Germany, the United States, and Peru have named a recently discovered species of snake after actor Harrison Ford.

About Tachymenoides harrisonfordi:-

  • Naming: It was named in honour of the actor Harrison Ford.
    • This is the third animal species to be named after Ford.
    • Earlier, an ant (Pheidole harrisonfordi) and a spider (Calponia harrisonfordi) were named after him.
  • Appearance: it measures approximately 16 inches (40.6 centimeters).
    • It has a yellowish-brown colour with scattered black blotches.
  • Distinctive Features: The snake boasts a black belly, a vertical streak above its copper-coloured eye, and unique markings that contribute to its identity.

MUST READ: Saltwater crocodile



Q.1) ‘Invasive Species Specialist group’ (that develops Global Invasive Species Database) belongs to which one of the following organizations? (2023)

  1. The International Union for Conservation of Nature
  2. The United Nations Environment Programme
  3. The United Nations World Commission for Environment and Development
  4. The World Wide Fund for Nature

Q.2) Which of the following is not a bird? (2022)

  1. Golden Mahseer
  2. Indian Nightjar
  3. Spoonbill
  4. White Ibis


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 4 (Ethics)

Context: According to the latest provisional data by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, In FY22, India’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending on the environment more than doubled, which made the sector the biggest recipient of such funds after health and education.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):

  • According to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders.
  • CSR is a way of running the businesses by which corporate houses contribute towards social good.
  • It is closely linked to sustainability (creating economic, social, and environmental value) and ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance).
  • CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives (‘Triple-Bottom-Line- Approach’), while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders and stakeholders.

Activities can be undertaken by A Company under the CSR: Specified under Schedule VII of the Companies Act 2013, these activities include:

  • Eradicating extreme hunger and poverty
  • Promotion of education, gender equality and empowering women
  • Combating HIV-AIDS and other diseases
  • Ensuring environmental sustainability
  • Contribution to the PM’s National Relief Fund or any other fund set up by the Central Government for socio-economic development and relief.

Significance of CSR:

  • Sustainable Development Goals: Corporates are seen as the key drivers of SDGs as they can apply their creativity and innovation to achieve sustainable development.
    • CSR and SDGs together have tremendous potential to develop an interconnected model for sustainable growth.
  • CSR for Technology Incubators: In September 2019, the Government expanded the scope of CSR to spur the R&D and innovation ecosystem in India.
    • Contribution to incubators funded by Governments/PSUs or to research and academic institutions has been included under the CSR.
  • Responsible Business Reputation/Customer Loyalty: Corporate social investment can help to build a reputation as a responsible business, which can, in turn, lead to competitive advantage.
    • Companies often favour suppliers who have responsible policies, since this can reflect on how their customers see them.
  • Costs Savings: By reducing resource use, waste and emissions, will help the environment and save money as well.
    • With a few simple steps, company may be able to lower their utility bills and achieve savings for their business.
  • Employee Retention: Employees stay in their jobs because of several reasons: job satisfaction, the environment of the company, and good prospects etc.
    • Being a responsible, sustainable business may make it easier to recruit new employees or retain existing ones.
    • Employees may be motivated to stay longer, thus reducing the costs and disruption of recruitment and retraining.
  • Attracting Responsible Investors: Socially responsible investors (SRIs) seek out businesses that have shared values.
    • The number of SRIs is raising rapidly.
    • Shareholder engagement is also seen to be more prominent in companies with SRIs, as they are more willing to push CSR to the forefront of business strategy.

Issues Pertaining to CSR:

  • Finding Right Partners: Despite growing awareness about the significance of CSR compliance, the challenges remain in identifying the right partners and projects, as well as in selecting projects that are long-term impactful, scalable, and are self-sustaining.
  • Lack of Community Participation in CSR Activities: There is a lack of interest of the local community in participating and contributing to CSR activities of companies.
    • This is largely attributable to the fact that there exists little or no knowledge about CSR within the local communities as no serious efforts have been made to spread awareness about CSR.
    • The situation is further aggravated by a lack of communication between the company and the community at the grassroots.
  • Issues of Transparency: There is an expression by the companies that there exists lack of transparency on the part of the local implementing agencies as they do not make adequate efforts to disclose information on their programs, audit issues, impact assessment and utilisation of funds.
    • This reported lack of transparency negatively affects the process of trust building between companies and local communities, which is a key to the success of any CSR initiative at the local level.
  • Non-availability of Well-Organised NGOs: There is non-availability of well organized NGOs in remote and rural areas that can assess and identify real needs of the community and work along with companies to ensure successful implementation of CSR activities.

Examples of CSR activities in India:

  • TATA GROUP: The Tata Group supports numerous educational institutions with scholarships and endowments.
    • The organisation is also involved in healthcare projects such as child education, immunisation, and raising AIDS awareness.
  • ULTRATECH CEMENT: Its CSR initiatives are focused on healthcare and family welfare programmes, education, infrastructure, the environment, social welfare, and long-term economic viability.
  • ITC GROUP: Their e-Choupal programme, which aims to connect rural farmers via the internet to purchase agricultural products, now includes 40,000 villages and more than four million farmers.
  • MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA: M&M runs programmes like Nanhi Kali, which focuses on girls’ education, Mahindra Pride Schools, which provides industrial training, and Lifeline Express, which provides healthcare in rural areas.

Way Forward:

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has instituted National Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Awards to recognize companies that have made a positive impact on society through their innovative and sustainable CSR initiatives will further the companies. All CSR projects should be selected and implemented with the active involvement of communities, district administration and public representatives.

Source:  Economic Times

Good Governance and e Governance


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 4 (Ethics)

Context: Recently Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space said the Uttar Pradesh’s District Good Governance Index 2022, the first of its kind by any state, ready for release.

About Good Governance and e governance:

  • According to the World Bank “good governance is central to creating and sustaining an environment which fosters strong and equitable development and it is an essential complement to sound economic policies”.
    • Good governance is the process of measuring how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.
  • On the other hand, E-government is the use of technological communications devices, such as computers and the Internet, to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.
    • E-government offers new opportunities for more direct and convenient citizen access to government and for government provision of services directly to citizens.


  • Responsiveness: Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
  • Rule of law: Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially.
    • It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities.
    • Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
  • Transparency: These helps make all functions of the business transparent.
    • All official information can be uploaded onto the internet.
    • The citizens specifically access whichever information they want, whenever they want it, at their convenience.
  • Data Driven Governance: Technology facilitates communication.
    • The Internet and smartphones have enabled instant transmission of high volumes of data that acts as a fodder for effective governance.
  • Costs Saving: A lot of Government expenditure goes towards the cost of buying stationery for official purposes.
    • Letters and written records consume a lot of stationery.
    • However, replacing them with smartphones and the internet can save crores of money in expenses every year.
  • Accountability: Transparency directly links to accountability.
    • Once the functions and information of the governance is available to the citizens, the government is more accountable to its actions.
  • Land Record Monitoring: A vast developing country like India, with its diverse land tenure system requires effective land monitoring.
    • In order to ensure that transactions related to properties are not fraudulent, along with physical transactions, online record maintenance is a key feature of e-governance in India.
  • Speedy delivery: To ensure speedy administration of services and information.
  • To reduce difficulties: for business, provide immediate information and enable digital communication by e-business.


  • Lack of computer literacy: India is still a developing country and a vast majority of the citizens lacks computer literacy, which hinders the effectiveness of e-governance.
  • Lack of accessibility: to the internet or even computers in some parts of the country is a disadvantage to e-governance.
  • E-Governance results in a loss of human interaction: As the system becomes more mechanized, lesser interaction takes place among people.
  • Risk: It gives rise to the risk of personal data theft and leakage.
  • E-Governance leads to a lax administration: The service provider can easily provide excuses for not providing the service on technical grounds such as “server is down” or “internet is not working”, etc.
  • Corruption at various levels and centralization of power and authority: 2021 Corruption Perceptions Index ranked India in 85th place out of 180.
  • Criminalization of politics and weak legislators with criminal records, poor knowledge about development issues and low level of education.
  • Poor people’s participation in development processes.
  • Poor coordination among the political, administrative and community-level organizations and institutions. (UPSC CSE: Code of conduct for civil servants)

Govt. Initiatives for Good Governance and e governance in India:

  • Right to Information Act: The enactment of the Right to Information Act 2005 marks a significant shift for Indian democracy, because the greater the access of citizens to information, the greater will be the responsiveness of the government to community needs.
  • Citizen’s Charter: A Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability.
  • Sevottam model: Sevottam is an assessment-improvement model that has been developed with the objective of improving the quality of public service delivery in the country.
  • in is a national citizen engagement platform where people can share ideas and be involved with matters of policy and governance.
  • UMANG is a Unified Mobile Application which provides access to central and state government services including Aadhar, Digital Locker, PAN, Employee Provident Fund services, etc.
  • PayGov facilitates online payments to all public and private banks.
  • Mobile Seva aims at providing government services through mobile phones and tablets.
  • Computerisation of Land Records ensures that landowners get digital and updated copies of documents relating to their property.
  • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation) is aimed at starting a culture of Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation.

Source: PIB

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Hydrogen Production
1.Grey hydrogen produced from fossil fuels.
2.Blue hydrogen produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage.
3.Green Hydrogen produced entirely from renewable power sources.

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition.


It can be treated completely by medication.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


First BRICS Summit was in 2009 in Brazil.


The 13th BRICS Summit was in 2021 in India.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Wisdom lies in knowing what to reckon with and what to overlook. An officer being engrossed with the periphery, ignoring the core issues before him, is no rare in the bureaucracy. Do you agree that such preoccupation of an administrator leads to travesty of justice to the cause of effective service delivery and good governance? Critically evaluate. (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 18th August 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 19th August – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – c

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