DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 13th September 2023

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  • September 13, 2023
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                Prelims –GEOGRAPHY

  • Context: The Moroccan media reported damage in many parts of Morocco including the city of Marrakesh due to the recent Earthquake.


  • At least 1,037 people have been killed and 672 people injured in the 6.8 earthquake.
  • The epicenter was in the High Atlas Mountains, 71 kilometres (44 miles) southwest of Marrakesh.
  • The quake was felt in Marrakesh, Rabat, Casablanca, and several other areas.
  • Moroccan media reported that the 12th-century Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech, one of the city’s most famed landmarks, suffered damage.
    • Marrakech is the chief city of central Morocco.
    • The ancient section of the city, known as the medina, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985.

About Morocco:-


  • Location: Western North Africa.
  • Boundary: Algeria to the east and southeast, Western Sahara to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north.
  • It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Strait: It lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain.
  • National languages of Morocco: Arabic.
  • Climate: Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and hot dry summers.
  • Mountain Ranges: The Atlas Mountains dominate the central part of the country, while the Rif Mountains make up the northern edge.
    • Jebel Toubkal is the highest point in Morocco at 13,664 ft (4,165 m) and is also the highest peak of the Atlas Mountains.
  • Seismic Activity:- It lies along the boundary of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates.
  • These two massive plates interact, and their movements can result in seismic activity.

About Earthquake:-

  • An earthquake is an intense shaking of the Earth’s surface.
  • The shaking is caused by movements in Earth’s outermost layer.
  • The Earth is made of four basic layers: a solid crust, a hot, nearly solid mantle, a liquid outer core, and a solid inner core.
  • The solid crust and top, stiff layer of the mantle make up a region called the lithosphere.
  • It’s actually made up of tectonic plates which are constantly shifting as they drift around on the viscous, or slowly flowing, mantle layer below.
  • This non-stop movement causes stress on Earth’s crust.
  • When the stresses get too large, it leads to cracks called
  • When tectonic plates move, it also causes movements at the faults.
  • An earthquake is the sudden movement of Earth’s crust at a fault line.
  • Hypocentre/Focus: The point where the energy is released.
  • Epicentre: The point on the surface directly above the focus.
  • Isoseismic line: A line connecting all points on the surface where the intensity is the same.

Causes of Earthquakes:-

  • Fault Zones
  • Plate tectonics
  • Volcanic activity
  • Human-Induced Earthquake

Types of Earthquakes:-

  • Tectonic Earthquakes: These are caused by the movement of the tectonic plates along the fault line.  (Anatolian Plate)
  • Volcanic Earthquake: Earthquakes produced by stress changes in solid rock due to the injection or withdrawal of magma (molten rock) are called volcano earthquakes (Volcano)
  • Human-Induced Earthquakes: In areas of intense mining activity, sometimes the roofs of underground mines collapse causing minor tremors.
    • These are called collapse earthquakes.
    • Ground shaking may also occur due to the explosion of chemical or nuclear devices.
    • Such tremors are called explosion earthquakes.

MUST READ: Earthquake in Indonesia



Q.1) Which one of the following is a part of the Congo Basin? (2023)

  1. Cameroon
  2. Nigeria
  3. South Sudan
  4. Uganda

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. The Barren Island volcano is an active volcano located in the Indian territory.
  2. Barren Island lies about 140 km east of Great Nicobar.
  3. The last time the Barren Island volcano erupted was in 1991 and it has remained inactive since then.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

First Global Symposium on Farmers' Rights



Context: President Droupadi Murmu inaugurated the First Global Symposium on Farmers’ Rights in New Delhi recently.

About First Global Symposium on Farmers’ Rights:-

  • Venue: ICAR Convention Centre, National Agricultural Science Centre, New Delhi.
  • Date: September 12 to 15, 2023.
  • Historical Background: The proposal to hold the first GFSR was mooted by the Government of India at the Ninth Session of the Governing Body (GB9) of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (International Treaty) held in India in September 2022, which was agreed by the FAO.
  • Organized by: Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (International Treaty) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome.
  • Hosted by: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India, in collaboration with the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights (PPVFR) Authority, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), and ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR).
  • Objective: to address critical issues related to farmers’ rights and their essential role in global food security and agriculture.
  • Eminent scientists and resource persons will participate from 59 countries across the globe.
  • They will deliberate on how to recognize and reward the enormous contribution that local and indigenous communities and farmers of all regions of the world have made to the conservation and development of plant genetic resources (PGR).

Key Agendas:-

  • Focus on Farmers’ Rights: The symposium places a strong emphasis on farmers’ rights as its central theme.
  • Proposal for Future Work: Participants engage in discussions and deliberations aimed at formulating proposals for future work.
  • Knowledge and Awareness: An essential outcome of the symposium is the promotion of knowledge and awareness regarding farmers’ rights among its participants. (Tenant Farmers in India)
  • Sharing Best Practices: The symposium serves as a valuable platform for stakeholders to share best practices, experiences, and lessons learned related to farmers’ rights. (Organic Farming)
  • The interconnectedness of Farmers’ Rights and Human Rights: Recognizing that farmers’ rights are intrinsic to human rights underscores their significance within the broader context of agriculture and farming.

MUST READ: Doubling the Farmers’ Income



Q.1) Which of the following activities constitute a real sector in the economy? (2022)

  1. Farmers harvesting their crops
  2. Textile mills converting raw cotton into fabrics
  3. A commercial bank lending money to a trading company

A corporate body issuing Rupee Denominated Bonds overseas

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and

Q.2) Under the Kisan Credit Card scheme, short-term credit support is given to farmers for which of the following purposes? (2020)

  1. Working capital for maintenance of farm assets harvesters,
  2. Purchase of combine tractors and mini trucks requirements of farm
  3. Consumption households
  4. Post-harvest expenses
  5. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 5 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2,3,4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Megalithic dolmen site


  • Prelims – ART AND CULTURE

Context: Ancient terracotta figurines were found during archaeological explorations at the megalithic dolmen site near Moodbidri recently.


  • Unique terracotta figurines in different states of preservation, with bone and iron pieces have been found in recent archaeological explorations conducted in the megalithic dolmen site at Mudu Konaje, near Moodbidri, in Dakshina Kannada.

About Megalithic dolmen site:-

  • Discovery site: Moodbidri in Dakshina Kannada(Karnataka)
  • Duration: 800-700 B.C.
  • Discovery: Of the eight figurines found, there are two cow bovines, one mother goddess, two peacocks, a horse, the hand of a mother goddess, and an unknown object.
  • These figurines were found inside the surface of dolmens, although some had been disturbed by treasure hunters.
  • Megalithic culture is known for its different types of burials and use of iron in India and Dolmen is one among them.
  • Under a dolmen, huge stone slabs known as orthostats were erected in clockwise order, which created a square room that was closed by another huge stone slab as a capstone.
  • Generally, on the Eastern slab, a round or U-shaped entrance known as a port-hole was created.
  • It was known by different names in South India like Kalmane, Pandavara Mane, Moriyara Mane, Moriyara Betta, and so on.

Cow bovines:-

  • One of the two cow bovines is a solid handmade human body with a bull’s head and is about 9 cm in height and 5 cm in width.
  • It has a clear snout of a bull and its femininity is well attested by two breasts attached by the applique method.
  • The second cow bovine is another solid handmade figurine which is about 5 cm in height and 4 cm in width.
  • It has a bovine snout and an archetype head gear and applique ornamentation around the neck and below the belly.
  • The presence of cow bovines helps determine the chronology of the dolmens.
  • Cow goddesses have parallels in other megalithic terracotta figurines found in places like Kerala and Egypt.

Peacock and Horse Figurines:-

  • One of the two peacocks is a solid peacock which is about 11 cm in height and 7 cm in width, dipped into red ochre and its feathers are down towards the earth.
  • Another peacock has an elongated head created separately, which can be insertable into a shallow body that is missing, and the feathers are designed upwards.
  • The figurines of peacocks and a horse suggest a connection to animals in their beliefs or possibly a representation of their natural surroundings.

Mother goddess:-

  • The torso of a mother goddess has no head, hands, or legs.

Significance of the discovery:

  • These discoveries offer insights into the cultural and religious practices of the people of coastal Karnataka during the 800-700 B.C. timeframe.
  • These terracotta figurines provide a solid foundation for studying the Bhoota cult or Daiva Aradhane in coastal Karnataka during ancient times.
  • The presence of these figurines in a megalithic burial context adds to our understanding of the religious and cultural practices of the region.

MUST READ: Language in Indus Valley Civilization



Q.1) With reference to ancient South India, Korkai, Poompuhar, and Muchiri were well-known (2023)

  1. capital cities
  2. ports
  3. centres of iron-and-steel making
  4. shrines of Jain Tirthankaras

Q.2) Who among the following rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire constructed a large dam across the Tungabhadra River and a canal-cum-aqueduct several kilometres long from the river to the capital city? (2023)

  1. Devaraya I
  2. Mallikatjuna
  3. Vira Vijaya
  4. Virupaksha

Kisan Credit Card (KCC)


  • Prelims –ECONOMY

Context: The Union Minister of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, chaired a National KCC Conference recently, to boost Kisan Credit Card (KCC) saturation among animal husbandry and dairy farmers.


  • The government in 2018-19 extended the Kisan Credit Card (KCC) facility to fisheries and animal husbandry farmers to help them meet their working capital requirements.
  • The Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying in association with the Department of Financial Services, has been organizing various campaigns since June 2020 to provide Kisan Credit Card facilities to all eligible Animal Husbandry and Fishery farmers.
  • More than 50,000 animal husbandry farmers virtually attended through 1,000 common service centers across the country.

About Kisan Credit Card (KCC):-

  • Ministry: Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying.

Historical Background:-

  • The scheme was introduced in 1998 for providing adequate and timely credit support from the banking system, under a single window and simplified procedure to the farmers.
  • The scheme was further extended for the investment credit requirement of farmers viz. allied and non-farm activities in the year 2004.
  • In the Budget-2018-19, the government announced the extension of the facility of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) to fisheries and animal husbandry farmers to help them meet their working capital needs.


  • To meet the short-term credit requirement for cultivation.
  • To manage post-harvest expenses.
  • To meet the consumption requirement of the farmer’s household.

Implementing Agencies:-

  • Commercial Banks
  • Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
  • Small Finance Banks
  • Cooperatives

Salient Features of Kisan Credit Card:-

  • The KCC offers a number of features, including an ATM-enabled RuPay Card, one-time documentation, built-in cost escalation in the limit, and any number of withdrawals within the limit.
  • In 2004, the program’s eligibility was expanded to include farmers’ needs for investment credit for non-farm and related activities. (Procurement Reforms)
  • KCC provides for post-harvest expenses, produce marketing loans, household consumption needs for farmers, etc.
  • The repayment period is decided on the basis of the harvesting of the crop and its marketing period.
  • The maximum limit for a short-term agriculture loan is up to 1 year and for a long-term loan is 5 years.
  • Moreover, banks can extend the tenure/duration of the loan at their discretion.
  • To ensure the availability of agricultural credit at a reasonable cost of 7% per annum to farmers.
  • The government of India implements an interest subvention scheme of 2% for short-term crop loans up to Rs. 3 lakh.
  • In addition, the GOI provides interest subvention of 2% and a prompt repayment incentive of 3% to the farmers.
  • Farmers are charged a simple interest rate when they make prompt payments.
  • Compound interest is charged when cardholders fail to make timely payments.


  • The Interest rate offered on the loan may go as low as 2.00%.
  • Banks will not seek security on loans up to Rs. 1.60 lakh.
  • Crop insurance coverage against a variety of calamities is given to the users.
  • Farmer is provided insurance coverage against permanent disability, death, and other risks is also provided to the farmer.

MUST READ: Minimum Support Prices



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. The Government of India provides Minimum Support Price for niger( Guizotia aoyssinica) seeds.
  2. Niger is cultivated as a Kharif crop.
  3. Some tribal people in India use niger seed oil for cooking.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) Which one of the following countries has been suffering from decades of civil strife and food shortages and was in the news in the recent past for its very severe famine? (2023)

  1. Angola
  2. Costa Rica
  3. Ecuador
  4. Somalia

African Swine Fever



Context: Recently, the African swine fever reached the Far North.


  • On Monday 11 September,2023 the Swedish Board of Agriculture decided that all domestic pigs in the infected zone should be killed.
  • There are about 50 pigs spread over five farms.
  • Sweden is the 24th country in Europe to report outbreaks of ASF within its borders.

About African swine fever:-


  • First detected: Africa in the 1920s.
  • ASF is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease.
  • It infects domestic and wild pigs, typically resulting in an acute form of hemorrhagic fever.
  • The mortality is close to 100 percent, and since the fever has no cure, the only way to stop it from spreading is by culling the animals.
  • It is not a threat to human beings since it only spreads from animals to other animals.
  • Historically, outbreaks have been reported in Africa and parts of Europe, South America, and the Caribbean.
  • However, more recently (since 2007), the disease has been reported in multiple countries across Africa, Asia, and Europe, in both domestic and wild pigs.
  • ASF is a disease listed in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and thus, reported to the OIE.
  • There is currently no effective vaccine against ASF.
  • The virus is highly resistant to the environment, meaning that it can survive on clothes, boots, wheels, and other materials.
  • It can also survive in various pork products, such as ham, sausages, or bacon.

MUST READ: Swine Flu: Awareness and Cure



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. In tropical regions, Zika virus disease is transmitted by ‘the same mosquito that transmits dengue.
  2. Sexual transmission of Zika virus disease is possible

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) The H1N1 virus is sometimes mentioned in the news with reference to which one of the following diseases? (2015)

  1. AIDS
  2. Bird flu
  3. Dengue
  4. Swine flu

World Trade Organisation (WTO)



Context: Recently, the World Trade Organisation (WTO) disputes between the US and India were resolved through Mutually Agreed Solutions.


  • With the decision to resolve six outstanding World Trade Organisation (WTO) disputes between the US and India through Mutually Agreed Solutions in June 2023, India has withdrawn additional duties on eight US-origin products, including apples, walnuts and almonds vide notification number 53/2023 (Custom).
  • Additional duties of 20% each on apples and walnuts and Rs 20 per kg on Almonds were imposed on the US’s products in 2019 over and above the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) duty as a retaliation to the US’s state protectionist measure of increasing tariffs on certain steel and Aluminium products.
  • These additional duties imposed by India on US-origin products have been withdrawn as the US agreed to provide market access to Steel and Aluminium products under the exclusion process.
  • There is no reduction on the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) duty on apples, walnuts, and almonds, which still applies to all imported products, including US-origin products, at 50%, 100%, and Rs 100 per kg, respectively.
  • Further, DGFT, vide its notification number 05/ 2023 dated 8 May 2023, made an amendment in import policy for Apples under ITC (HS) 08081000 by applying MIP (Minimum Import Price) of Rs 50 per Kg for imports from all countries except Bhutan.
  • Therefore, this MIP will also apply to apples from the US and other countries (excluding Bhutan).
  • This measure would protect against the dumping of low-quality apples and from any predatory pricing in the Indian market.

About WTO:-

  • Established: 1995.
  • HQ: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Members: 164 members.
  • India is a member of WTO. (China’s Developing Status at WTO)
  • The WTO operates the global system of trade rules.
  • It helps developing countries build their trade capacity.
  • It also provides a forum for its members to negotiate trade agreements and resolve the trade problems they face with each other.

Historical Background:-

  • It was established following the Marrakesh Agreement which was ratified on April 15, 1994.
  • The General Agreement on Tariff and Trade was substituted by the Marrakesh Agreement.
  • The GATT was only a set of rules and multilateral agreements and lacked institutional structure.
  • The GATT 1947 was terminated and WTO preserved its provisions in the form of GATT 1994 and continues to govern trade in goods.
  • It is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.

Functions of WTO:-

  • Establishing and Enforcing Rules for International Trade
  • Negotiating trade rules
  • Overseeing WTO agreements
  • Maintaining open trade
  • Settling disputes
  • Collaboration Between International Economic Institutions
  • Safeguarding The Trading Interest of Developing Countries




Q.1) Consider the following statements about G-20: (2023)

  1. The G-20 group was originally established as a platform for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss the
  2. International economic and financial issues.
  3. Digital public infrastructure is one of India’s G-20 priorities.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) The ‘Fortaleza Declaration’ recently in the news, is related to the affairs of: (2015)

  1. ASEAN
  2. BRICS
  3. OECD
  4. WTO


MSMEs can Drive India’s Digital Push


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises’ (MSME) adoption of digital technologies is critical for their competitiveness.

Status of MSME sector in India:

  • Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) was introduced by the Government of India in agreement with the MSMED (Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development) Act of 2006. are small-sized business enterprises defined in terms of their investment.
  • They are also accountable for one-third of India’s manufacturing output.
  • It contributes about 11% of GDP from manufacturing and 24.63% of GDP from service activities.
  • According to 2018-19 Annual Report of Department of MSMEs, there are 6.34 crore MSMEs in the country.
    • Around 51 per cent of these are situated in rural India.
    • 5 per cent of all MSMEs fall in the micro category.
  • These MSMEs employ more than 11 crore people.
  • They account for approximately 45% of India’s total exports.
  • India’s global digital share:
    • On the pace and scale of digital transformations, India has stolen a march over advanced economies, both domestically and in terms of exports.
    • An UNCTAD 2018 report indicated that India had exported $89 billion in 2016-17 in the digitally delivered services segment.
    • The OECD found that India’s share of global estimated digital trade exports grew by roughly 400 percent — from 1 percent in 1995 to nearly 4 percent in 2018.

Types of MSME:

Significance of MSMEs:

  • Contribution to GDP and exports: In 2020-21, MSMEs accounted for 26.8% of Gross Value Added (GVA).
    • The contribution of MSMEs in exports stood at 42.6%.
    • The contribution of Manufacturing MSME Gross Value Added (GVA) contributed 38.4% of India’s total Manufacturing GVA (2020–21).
    • The Ministry of MSME has set a goal of increasing its contribution to GDP to 50% by 2025.
  • Growth drivers for rural development: In contrast to large corporations, MSMEs have aided in the industrialization of rural areas at a low capital cost.
    • The sector has made significant contributions to the rural socioeconomic growth while also supplementing major industries.
  • Creation of Employment: MSMEs are India’s largest employer outside of agriculture employing over 11.1 crore people, or 45% of all workers.
  • Simple structure and operational ability: Given India’s middle-class economy, MSMEs offers the flexibility of starting with limited resources under the owner’s control.
    • As a result, making decisions becomes easier and more efficient.
  • Promotion of Innovation and Research: They support local resource mobilisation, capacity building, industrial development in rural areas, and give aspiring entrepreneurs a chance to develop innovative products.
    • It has enormous potential for connecting India’s MSME base with large corporations. Multinational corporations are increasingly purchasing semi-finished and auxiliary products from small businesses.

Challenges associated with the sector:

  • Mounting NPAs if MSMEs: According to the RBI, bad loans of MSMEs now account for 9.6 per cent of gross advances of Rs 17.33 lakh crore as against 8.2 per cent in 2020.
    • The MSME sector was among the most pandemic afflicted sectors. Thousands of MSMEs either shut down or became sick after the government announced a nationwide strict lockdown.
  • Non-availability/Delays of Funds: Mounting losses and debts, non-availability of proper financial help and delays from the government, reluctance from the banks for the funding, etc.
    • MSMEs in India typically rely on NBFCs for their financing needs, which in itself has been enduring a liquidity crunch since September 2018.
  • Lack of Infrastructure and Technology: Poor quality of power with unscheduled cuts, no substations, no proper roads, no effective storm water drainage, inadequate sewage treatment plants and transport facilities.
    • Most of India’s MSME sector is based on outdated technology, which hampers its production efficiency.
  • Lack of Formalization: Almost 86% of the manufacturing MSMEs operating in the country are unregistered.
    • Out of the 6.3 crore MSMEs, only about 1.1 crores are registered with the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime and the number of income tax filers are even less.
  • Issues with Manpower and Scale: There is a huge shortage of labour and also identifying candidates through skill development initiatives is a challenge.
    • The majority of the firms in MSMEs are micro-enterprises and scaling them up is a problem, especially when fund access is challenging.
  • Hampered productivity: These issues hamper the productivity of small firms which is already very low relative to larger firms, which deters employment generation and dynamism in Indian manufacturing.

Govt. Indicatives to boost the sector:

  • Stand Up India: The scheme provides financial assistance to scheduled caste (SC), scheduled tribe (ST) and women entrepreneurs for setting up new enterprises.
  • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI): The scheme supports the establishment of collective manufacturing enterprises of artisans, to increase their production, making them produce value-added products, and enhancing the marketability of products.
  • Public Procurement Policy for Micro and Small Enterprises: Ministry of MSME mandates 25% annual procurement from MSEs by Central Ministries/ Departments/ Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) including 4% from MSEs owned by SC/ST and 3% from MSEs owned by Women entrepreneurs.
  • Procurement and Marketing Support (PMS) Scheme: The scheme promotes new market access initiatives and enhances the marketability of products and services in the MSME sector.
  • International Cooperation Scheme: The Scheme provides financial assistance to Industry Associations to participate in International exhibitions abroad, to organize International conferences in India and to capacity build ‘First Time MSE Exporters’ on a reimbursement basis.
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY) scheme

Source: The Hindu

India’s of Food Security


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: Despite being the fastest growing large economy, India is facing the alarming issue of food-price inflation as it can be seen on the affordability of a healthy diet for a significant portion of the population.

Highlights of alarming findings:

  • The ‘State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World’ of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates the proportion of the population across countries unable to afford a healthy diet.
    • An estimated 74% of the population cannot afford a healthy diet.
  • Implied Reduction in Purchasing Power: It would be reasonable to expect that food consumption has been impacted.
    • Food prices in India have been steadily increasing since 2019, with annual inflation exceeding 11% in July 2023, the highest in a decade.
  • Rise in the Prevalence of Anaemia: As per latest National Family Health Survey (undertaken over 2019-21), over 50% of adult women were estimated to be anaemic.
  • Ineffective Macroeconomic policies: It is criticised that the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies, particularly the Reserve Bank of India’s approach to controlling inflation through measures like inflation targeting are ineffective in addressing food inflation, which is largely driven by supply-side factors.

Significance of Food security:

  • Promotes health and nutrition: Food security improves the health and well-being of individuals by preventing malnutrition and its associated health problems, such as stunting, cognitive impairment, and disease susceptibility.
    • Malnutrition is responsible for the death of 3.1 million children a year, which is nearly half of all deaths in children under the age of 5.
  • Economic and social stability: Food security enhances the economic and social stability of individuals and nations by enabling them to be more productive, generate income, and participate in trade.
    • A study by the World Bank estimated that the global cost of undernutrition in terms of lost productivity and human capital was USD 3.5 trillion per year.
    • A report by the United Nations found that food insecurity was a key factor in 58% of the conflicts that occurred between 2017 and 2019.
  • Reduced poverty and hunger: Food security contributes to poverty reduction by allowing people to afford and access nutritious food and invest in other essential needs, such as education and healthcare.
    • These can help them escape the cycle of poverty.
  • National Security: Food security strengthens national security by ensuring a reliable food supply that is not dependent on external factors, such as global food prices or supply chain disruptions.
    • Food insecurity can make nations vulnerable to these factors and compromise their sovereignty.
  • Towards sustainable development: Food security advances sustainable development by achieving one of its main goals (Goal 2: Zero Hunger) and supporting other related goals, such as poverty reduction, good health, gender equality, and environmental sustainability.

Learning from the green revolution:

  • India has a rich history of the Green Revolution, which took place in the 1960s.
  • The government launched a supply-side strategy by equipping farmers with high-yielding seeds, affordable credit, and guaranteed prices through procurement.
  • This endeavour achieved remarkable success.
    • Within a short span, India no longer relied on food imports.
    • It facilitated India’s aspiration for self-sufficiency.
  • However, there were some mistakes at the level of strategy.
    • There was excessive use of chemical fertilizers that led to soil degradation.
  • There was also an overemphasis on procurement prices rather than boosting productivity to enhance farm incomes. It contributes to inflation.
  • The policy predominantly concentrated on cereals rather than pulses, a primary source of protein for most Indians.

Causes of Food insecurity:

  • Russia-Ukraine War: Russia-Ukraine war has disrupted the Global supply chain following trade-related policies imposed by countries have surged.
    • The global food crisis has been partially made worse by the growing number of food trade restrictions put in place by countries with a goal of increasing domestic supply and reducing prices.
  • Domestic Inflation: Domestic food Inflation in many countries have added fuel to the fire and further aggravated the problem of food insecurity in the world.
    • For Example, India has imposed a ban on wheat and rice exports to support its domestic population.
  • Climate Variability and Extremes: Climate change has affected the availability and quality of water, land, and biodiversity, which are essential for food production.
    • It has also altered the patterns and intensity of pests, diseases, and natural disasters, which has reduced crop yields and livestock productivity.
    • According to the Global Report on Food Crises, weather and climate extremes were the primary driver of acute food insecurity in 12 countries in 2021, affecting nearly 57 million people.
  • Economic Slowdowns and Downturns: They have reduced the income and employment opportunities of poor and marginalized people, who have spent a large share of their income on food.
    • Economic shocks have also affected the supply and demand of food, leading to higher food prices and lower food quality.

Way Forward: Suggestive measures

  • Increased agriculture Expenditure: Review and optimize public spending on irrigation for efficiency.
  • Research Institute Revival: India’s network of public agricultural research institutes needs to be energized to resume the sterling role they had played in the 1960s.
    • Revival of the role of the gram sevak in the village, playing a crucial role in the dissemination of best practices.
  • Increase of protein based crop production: Various initiatives should be dovetailed into a programme for the manifold increase of protein production.
  • Develop a spirit of cooperative federalism: States are asked to play their part to enhance agricultural productivity rather than relying on food allocations to their Public Distribution System from the central pool.
  • Focus on permanent access: In order to ensure that all Indians have permanent access to a healthy diet, no approach consistent with ecological security must be off the table.
  • Intervention on the supply side: It is necessary to intervene on the supply side to ensure that food is produced at a steady price by raising the yield on land.
  • Lowering of food prices: Need to focus on the specific goal of lowering the cost of producing food.
  • Multidimensional approach: Need to extend irrigation to 100% of the net sown area, an end to restrictions on leasing of land, a quickening of agricultural research and the re-institution of extension.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

International organizations HQ
1.IMF Washington, D.C, USA
2.WHO Paris, France
3.UN New York, USA

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Morocco is located in Northwest Asia.


It lies along the boundary of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) With reference to the WTO consider the following statements:

  1. WTO is not a UN specialized agency.
  2. The headquarters of the World Trade Organization is located in Melbourne.
  3. India is not a member of WTO.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Food security is a pressing global issue, with millions of people around the world facing hunger and malnutrition. In this context, discuss the role that India could play in addressing the global food security challenge. (250 words)

Q.2) The MSME sector is a key driver of economic growth in India, but faces a significant credit gap. What are the challenges associated with lending to MSMEs, and how can innovative financial instruments be developed to cater to their unique needs? Discuss (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’  13th September 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 12th September – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – c

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