DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 13th January 2023

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  • January 13, 2023
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United Nations Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH)

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  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: A report was recently released by United Nations Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) that stated that world will lose 26% storage by 2050 to trapped sediment.


  • UNU-INWEH was established in 1996 as subsidiary body of the United Nations University (UNU) institutes and an academic arm of the UN.
  • Its operations are secured through long-term host-country and core-funding agreements with the Government of Canada.
  • The Institute is located in Hamilton, Canada; its facilities are supported by McMaster University.
  • It specializes on water for development, working, primarily with countries in the Global South, and addressing water issues of global significance.
  • It is the UN Think Tank on Water created by the UNU Governing Council.
  • UNU-INWEH is the only Institute in UNU that focuses entirely and solely on water issues.
  • It is also the only entirely water-focused UN entity in Canada.
  • UNU-INWEH is linked to key processes in the UN system, and represents the entire UNU in UN-Water – a cross-agency group in the UN and international partners working on water and sanitation issues globally.

Important findings of the report:

  • About 50,000 large dams across the world will lose 24-28 % water storage capacity by 2050 due to sediment trapped in them.
  • These water reservoirs have already lost about 13-19 % capacity to sedimentation.
  • Sedimentation is caused when a river carrying eroded soil is blocked by a dam at its watershed.
  • Sediment helps to maintain the aquatic ecosystem.
  • Poor management Sedimentation can lead to nutritional disbalances causing eutrophication, damages in habitations downstream, choke of dam and turbine system.
  • Shallow water formed due to sedimentation also reduces the recreational value of the reservoirs.
  • United Kingdom, Panama, Ireland, Japan and Seychelles will experience highest water storage losses by 2050 losing between 35% and 50% of their original capacities.
  • Bhutan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Guinea and Niger will be five least-affected countries losing less than 15 % by 2050.
  • Dredging can be costly and only temporary.
  • Dredging- to clear the mud from the bottom of a river, canal, etc. using a special machine.

Major highlights of the report in the Asia-Pacific region:

  • Asia has 35,252 large dams, making it the world’s most heavily dammed region.
  • Region has 60% of the world’s population and water storage is crucial for sustaining water and food security.
  • In 2022, region will lose 13% of its initial dam storage capacity.
  • It will lose nearly a quarter (23%) of initial storage capacity by 2050.
  • Loss of storage capacity of Japan’s 3,052 dams is most acute in the region.
  • India’s Central Water Commission reported in 2015 that-
    • Among 141 large reservoirs that are over 50 years old, one-quarter had already lost at least 30% of their initial storage capacity.
  • UNU-INWEH estimates that India’s 3,700 large dams will have lost on average 26% of their initial total storage by 2050.
  • China, world’s most heavily dammed nation has lost about 10% of its storage and will lose a further 10% by 2050.

Source:  DownToEarth

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements:

  1. The India Sanitation Coalition is a platform to promote sustainable sanitation and is funded by the Government of India and the World Health Organisation.
  2. The National Institute of Urban Affairs is an apex body of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in Government of India and provides innovative solutions to address the challenges of Urban India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Which one of the following best describes the term “greenwashing”? (2022)

  1. Conveying a false impression that a company’s products are eco-friendly and environmentally sound
  2. Non-inclusion of ecological/ environmental costs in the Annual Financial Statements of a country
  3. Ignoring the consequences disastrous ecological while infrastructure development undertaking
  4. Making mandatory provisions for environmental costs in a government project/programme

Golden Globes Award

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  • Prelims – Miscellaneous

Context: Recently, Naatu Naatu song from SS Rajamouli’s epic movie RRR, won the Best Original Song in the 80th Golden Globe Awards.

About the Golden Globes Award:

  • The Awards are accolades bestowed by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA).
  • It started in 1944, recognizing excellence in both American and international film and television.
  • There are 105 members of the HFPA.
  • The eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year (from January 1 through December 31).
  • Naatu Naatu is the first Asian song to win the Golden Globe honour.
  • AR Rahman was the first Indian to win a Golden Globe award in Best Score category for the film Slumdog Millionaire, a 2008 British drama film by Danny Boyle.

The Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA):

  • HFPA or Hollywood Foreign Press Association is the organisation behind the awards.
  • HFPA is a non-profit outfit made up of journalists and photographers on the entertainment beat in different media like newspapers, magazines, books, radio, and TV broadcasting in the United States.
  • As the word ‘foreign’ implies, most of the members of HFPA are non-US citizens.
  • At the time of writing this, HFPA consists of 105 members from 55 countries.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards:

  1. Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards are titles under the Article 18(1) of the Constitution of India.
  2. Padma Awards, which were instituted in the year 1954, were suspended only once.
  3. The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of five in a particular year.

Which of the above statements are not correct? (2021)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements in respect of the Laureus World Sports Award which was instituted in the year 2000:

  1. American golfer Tiger Woods was the first winner of this award.
  2. The award was received mostly by ‘Formula One’ players so far.
  3. Roger Federer received this award maximum number of times compared to others.

Which of the above statements are correct? (2021)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements in respect of the 32nd Summer Olympics:

  1. The official motto for this Olympics is ‘A New World’.
  2. Sport Climbing, Surfing, Skateboarding, Karate and Baseball are included in this

Which of the above statements is/are correct? (2021)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Indian skimmer

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  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Around 250 Indian Skimmers, which has been included in the IUCN Red list of endangered species, were sighted in Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in a day during the Asian Waterbird Census-2023.

About Indian Skimmer:

  • The Indian skimmer also known as Indian scissors-bill (Rynchops albicollis) is one of the three species that belong to the skimmer genus Rynchops.
  • They are mainly found in rivers or estuaries.
  • It is found in southern Asia, where it is patchily distributed and declining in numbers.
  • Distribution: At present, the last strongholds of the Indian Skimmer are India and Bangladesh.
  • IUCN status: Endangered

Source:             The Hindu

Defence Acquisition Council

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  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) accorded Acceptance of Necessity (AoN) for three capital acquisition proposals amounting to ₹4,276 crore.

  • It includes Helicopter launched Nag (HELINA), Very Short-Range Air Defence Systems (VSHORAD) and BrahMos cruise missile launcher and Fire Control System (FCS) for naval ships.

About DAC:

  • DAC is the highest decision-making body in the Defence Ministry for deciding on new policies and capital acquisitions for the three services – Army, Navy and Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.
  • The Defence Acquisition Council is headed by the Defence Minister.
  • Members: Minister of State for Defence, Chief of Army Staff, Chief of Naval Staff, Chief of Air Staff, Defence Secretary, Secretary Defence Research and Development, Secretary Defence Production, Chief of Integrated Staff Committees HQ IDS, Director General (Acquisition, Dy. Chief of Integrated Defence-Staff Member Secretary.
  • It was formed, after the Group of Ministers recommendations on ‘Reforming the National Security System’, in 2001, post Kargil War (1999).

About HELINA Missiles

  • Missile is developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • It is helicopter-launched version of the Nag Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM).
  • Air Force variant of NAG missile is known as ‘Dhruvastra’.
  • It’s a third generation ‘fire-and-forget’ class missile.
  • It can be mounted on Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH).

Features of HELINA Missiles:

  • Missile system has all- weather day and night operational capabilities.
  • It can defeat battle tanks with conventional amour as well as explosive reactive amour (ERA).
  • Missile can engage targets both in direct hit mode as well as top attack mode.
  • Top attack mode: It requires to climb sharply after launch and travel at a certain altitude then plunge on the top of the target.
  • Direct hit mode: It travels at a lower altitude directly striking the target.

About Very Short-Range Air Defence Systems (VSHORAD):

  • It is designed and developed indigenously by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad, in collaboration with DRDO laboratories and Indian Industry Partners.
  • It meant to kill low altitude aerial threats at short ranges.
  • India has been in talks with Russia since 2018 to procure the Igla-S air defence missiles at a cost of $1.5 billion under the VSHORAD programme in a bid to replace the Russian Igla-M systems.

Features of VSHORAD:

  • It is a man portable Air Defence System (MANPAD).
  • It is a robust and quickly deployable system, which will strengthen India’s air defence capabilities.
  • Missile is propelled by a dual thrust solid motor—incorporates many novel technologies including miniaturized Reaction Control System (RCS) and integrated avionics.

Source: Indian Express

White Tufted Royal Butterfly

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  • Prelims – Environment and Economy

Context: A team of butterfly observers have recently found White Tufted Royal Butterfly, a rare butterfly species at Kalliyad in Kannur.

  • The species had earlier been spotted in Agasthyakoodam in 2017 and the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary in 2018.

About White Tufted Royal Butterfly:

  • It is protected under Schedule 2 of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
  • Its wingspan is just 32-40 mm.
  • Its larvae feed on Scurrula parasitica, a plant belonging to the Loranthaceae family.
  • It is also known as Pratapa deva.
  • It is found in Indomalayan realm.
  • There are eight species of this butterfly where 2 are common and others rare.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which of the following is not a bird? (2022)

  1. Golden Mahseer
  2. Indian Nightjar
  3. Spoonbill
  4. White Ibis

Q.2) Certain species of which one of the following organisms are well known as cultivators of fungi? (2022)

  1. Ant
  2. Cockroach
  3. Crab
  4. Spider

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

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  • Prelims – Polity

In News: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights is celebrating its 18th Foundation Day.

  • A Quiz was launched by the Commission on the occasion of National Youth Day (Swami Vivekananda Jayanti) to create awareness among children about child rights.

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

  • The Commission is a statutory body constituted under Section 3 of the Commission for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005
  • It aims to protect the child rights and other related matters in the country.
  • The Commission is further mandated to monitor the proper and effective implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012; Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 and Right to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.
  • In one of the functions laid down under Section 13 of the CPCR Act, 2005, the Commission has been assigned with the function to examine and review the safeguards provided by or under any law for the time being in force for the protection of child rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation.
  • The Commission also has the powers of Civil Court trying a suit under Section 14 of CPCR Act, 2005 and Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
  • It works under the aegis of Ministry of Women and Child Development

Source: PIB

Previous Year Question

Q1) Consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. The Election Commission of India is a five-member body.
  2. Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections.
  3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

CII Bio-Energy Summit

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  • Prelims – Economy

In News: The Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Housing and Urban Affairs was addressing the 11th edition of CII Bio-Energy Summit.

  • India has increased the ethanol blending in petrol from 1.53% in 2013-14 to 10.17% in 2022.
  • setting up 2G refineries to make ethanol from Parali (Panipat) and Bamboo (Numaligarh) with the twin objective of reducing pollution along with achieving energy security goals is another milestone in this direction.
  • Green Hydrogen Policy with a production target of 5 million tonnes by 2030 and aims to produce 4 MT Green Hydrogen annually & accrue Rs. 1 lakh crore of cumulative fossil fuel import savings by 2030.

The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)

  • CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organization
  • It was founded in 1895
  • It has 9000 members from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs, and an indirect membership of over 300,000 enterprises from 286 national and regional sectoral industry bodies.
  • With 62 offices, including 10 Centres of Excellence, in India, and 8 overseas offices in Australia, Egypt, Germany, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK, and USA, as well as institutional partnerships with 350 counterpart organizations in 133 countries, CII serves as a reference point for Indian industry and the international business community.


  • It works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the development of India, partnering Industry, Government and civil society, through advisory and consultative processes.


  • CII charts change by working closely with Government on policy issues, interfacing with thought leaders, and enhancing efficiency, competitiveness and business opportunities for industry through a range of specialized services and strategic global linkages.
  • It also provides a platform for consensus-building and networking on key issues.
  • CII assists industry to identify and execute corporate citizenship programmes.
  • Partnerships with civil society organizations carry forward corporate initiatives for integrated and inclusive development across diverse domains including affirmative action, livelihoods, diversity management, skill development, empowerment of women, and sustainable development, to name a few.

Source: PIB

Local Bubble

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  • Prelims – Science and Technology

In News: Researchers from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) | Harvard & Smithsonian have generated a 3D magnetic map of the cavity called Local Bubble.

Local Bubble:

  • It is a 1,000-light-year-wide cavity or a superbubble.
  • Local Bubble is thought to have originated from supernovae roughly 14 million years ago.  (Supernova is a cosmic explosion occurring when stars meet their end)
  • Other superbubbles also exist in the Milky Way –
  • Superbubbles are comparable to holes in Swiss cheese – Supernova explosions blow holes in the cheese and new stars form around these holes


  • Superbubbles trigger the formation of new stars and planets and influence the overall shapes of galaxies
  • Star-forming regions occur along the bubble’s surface.

About the study:

  • Mechanisms powering the formation and expansion of the Local Bubble are not well-understood
  • Further, there is little information on how magnetic fields likely impact the bubble and local star formation.
  • To generate a magnetic map of the Local Bubble, Gaia and Planck were used — space-based observatories launched by the European Space Agency (ESA)
  • Gaia was used to identify the location and local concentration of cosmic dust. This helped them trace the boundaries of the Local Bubble.
  • Planck provided information on the magnetic alignment of cosmic dust. This alignment can indicate the orientation of the magnetic field acting on the dust particles, allowing the researchers to generate a 3D magnetic field orientation on the surface of the Local Bubble
  • It is expected to improve the 3-D map’s accuracy with technology and a clearer understanding of the Local Bubble

Source: DTE

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which of the following is/are cited by the scientists as evidence/evidences for the continued expansion of universe? (2012)

  1. Detection of microwaves in space
  2. Observation of redshift phenomenon in space
  3. Movement of asteroids in space
  4. Occurrence of supernova explosions in space code

Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4
  4. None of the above

Basmati Rice

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  • Prelims – Economy

In News: In a bid to promote the business around basmati rice, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) notified standards for basmati rice based on parameters such as average size of grains and their elongation ratio after cooking, to be enforced from August 1, 2023.

  • It has set the maximum limits for moisture, amylose content, uric acid, damaged grains and presence of non-basmati rice.

About the standards:

  • The standards are applicable to brown basmati rice, milled basmati rice, parboiled brown basmati rice and milled parboiled basmati rice.
  • Aim – To establish fair practices in trade of basmati and to protect consumer interest
  • To ensure the basmati rice sold in the market has the characteristic fragrance identified with this variety and is free from artificial fragrances and colouring.

Basmati Rice:

  • Basmati rice is cultivated in the Himalayan foothills of the Indian subcontinent.
  • The specific agro-climatic conditions, processing techniques such as harvesting and ageing are said to make this rice unique.
  • In India, rice grown in specific parts of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir can be labelled as basmati.
  • Basmati rice is exported out of India and had an annual forex earning of Rs 25,053 crore during 2021-22.
  • India accounts for two-thirds of the global supply of basmati rice
  • Basmati rice is just one of the thousands of rice varieties available in India. However, this fragrant rice has invited the most controversy.
  • In 2020, India’s application for a geographical indication tag recognised in the European Union market was put on hold after Pakistan opposed the move.
  • A patent contested in 2000 by Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), (India’s premier science and industry organisation) said the term ‘basmati’ could be used only for rice grown in India and Pakistan.
  • In 2001, a final decision ensured that the US company could no longer use basmati in their name.

GI Tag:

  • A GI tag is primarily given to an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
  • Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
  • GI tag in India is governed by Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999. It is issued by the Geographical Indications Registry (Chennai).
  • This tag is valid for a period of 10 years following which it can be renewed.

Benefits of GI Tag:

  • It provides legal protection to Indian Geographical Indications thus preventing unauthorized use of the registered GIs by others.
  • It promotes economic prosperity of producers of goods produced in a geographical territory.
  • The GI protection in India leads to recognition of the product in other countries thus boosting exports.

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI):


  • FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.


  • It is an autonomous, statutory body established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act).
  • The Act aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi-departmental control to a single line of command.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • It comprises a Chairperson and twenty two members out of which one – third are to be women.
  • The Chairperson of FSSAI is appointed by the Central Government.
  • The primary responsibility for enforcement is largely with the State Food Safety Commissioners.

Source DTE

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to pre-packed items in India, it is mandatory to the manufacturer to put which of the following information on the main label, as per the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labelling) Regulation, 2011? (2016)

  1. List of ingredients including additives
  2. Nutrition information
  3. Recommendations, if any, made by the medical profession about the possibility of any allergic reaction
  4. Vegetarian/non-vegetarian

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only

India’s Cultural Renaissance – Kashi Tamil Sangamam

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  • Mains – GS 1 (Art and Culture)

Context: The month-long Kashi Tamil Sangamam, which showcased Tamil culture, heralded a new era where ancient Indian traditions intermingle with one another and are revitalized with the help of modern practices so that they contribute to cultural and economic growth.

  • It gave a rich cultural context to India’s mission to become a developed country by 2047. The event carried forward our tradition of Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat.

About Kashi Tamil Sangamam:

  • The Kashi Tamil Sangamam commemorates a variety of characteristics of the North and South of India’s shared history and culture.
  • The overarching goal is to strengthen the bonds between the peoples of the North and the South by bringing their respective knowledge systems and cultural traditions closer together.
  • It is being put on by the Ministry of Education in association with the Government of Uttar Pradesh and other ministries including Culture, Textiles, Railways, Tourism, Food Processing, Information and Broadcasting, etc.
  • The project is in line with the National Education Policy (NEP), which places a strong emphasis on fusing the richness of Indian Knowledge Systems with contemporary knowledge systems by the year 2020.
  • The program’s two implementing organisations are IIT Madras and Banaras Hindu University (BHU).

Ancient links associated with the Sangamam:

  • Kashi, one of the oldest living cities in the world, and Tamil Nadu, where people proudly speak the world’s oldest language, are towering pillars of ancient Indian civilization.
  • Both have rich, old arts, music, craftsmanship, philosophy, spirituality, and literary traditions.
  • Since ancient times, higher education in Southern India was not considered complete without a visit by the scholar to Kashi.
  • People from Rameswaram would take a dip in the Koti Teertha (in the temple) before visiting Kashi for darshan, and they would bring back water (Ganga) from Kashi for abhiseka at the temple in Rameswaram.
  • The government’s initiative to build the landmark Kashi Vishwanath corridor, which connects the Jyotirlinga with the Ganga, embellishes traditions with a touch of modernity for the benefit of residents and visitors.

Cultural Significance:

  • In order to construct a temple for Lord Shiva, King Parakrama Pandya of the area around Madurai in the 15th century travelled to Kashi (Uttar Pradesh) and brought back a lingam.
  • He took a break under a tree while travelling back, but when he tried to move on, the cow carrying the lingam stood still.
  • When Parakrama Pandya realised that this was the Lord’s intention, he put the lingam in the area, which later became known as Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu.
  • The Pandyas had constructed the Kasi Viswanathar Temple for devotees who could not go to Kashi at what is now Tenkasi in southern Tamil Nadu, near to the state’s border with Kerala.

Overall Significance of the Sangamam:

  • Integrating Heritage: The Sangamam created a unique platform to rediscover and integrate our heritage and ancient knowledge with modern thought, philosophy, technology, and craftsmanship.
    • This creates a new body of knowledge and fosters innovations that will help our artisans, weavers, entrepreneurs, and traders.
    • For instance, Varanasi is well known for Banarasi silk saris, and Kancheepuram, for its shimmering silk saris.
    • Weavers and entrepreneurs from both regions have a lot to gain from interacting with each other and from their exposure to modern practices of branding, quality control, marketing, product consistency, the use of modern machinery, and value addition.
  • Facilitation through government policies: The Sangamam was in step with the entire spectrum of this government’s policies.
    • These policies accord top priority to accelerating development with a focus on the welfare of the poorest of the poor, love for Indian culture, and promoting local industries and handicrafts.
  • One District One Product: The government is strongly promoting the One District One Product scheme that will take Indian products to the world market.
    • The Prime Minister of India is a brand ambassador for these products and gifts them to world leaders.
    • Traditional wooden toys of Varanasi are getting more export inquiries and are being showcased in international business exhibitions.
  • Traditional products: Traditional products will also get a big boost from other government initiatives such as the Open Network for Digital Commerce and the Government e-Marketplace.

The need to focus on textiles sector:

  • Potential of the textile sector: The textile sector, which has great job-creating potential, is a key part of our mission to become a developed country by 2047.
    • India’s textiles market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 12-13% to nearly $2 trillion by 2047, while exports from the sector are expected to grow at double digits.
  • Textiles Conclave: The government organized a ‘textiles conclave’ during the Sangamam. Several eminent personalities of different segments of the textile industry from Tamil Nadu and Kashi shared their experiences and exchanged ideas at a session on Amrit Kaal Vision 2047.
    • They were excited and confident about the government’s vision of raising textiles exports to $100 billion by 2030 and creating new opportunities in the sector.
  • 5F formula: 5F formula (farm, fibre, fabric, fashion, foreign) will accelerate growth in the sector and transform the lives of farmers and weavers.
    • Kashi and Tamil Nadu have a key role to play to achieve this vision.
  • Technical textile: The government is also encouraging technical textiles, which have phenomenal potential.
    • These products include functional textiles that are used in vehicles, protective clothing, bulletproof vests, and construction.
    • Man-made fibre, also an area of focus, has great potential for growth and exports.

Way Forward:

Around 2 lakh people visited the campus of the Banaras Hindu University which hosted cultural shows and a popular exhibition that highlighted Tamil products and cuisine. The Sangamam has ignited a new cultural zeal in India and whetted the country’s appetite for more. The Sangamam is the beginning of India’s cultural renaissance that is not limited to the bonding of Tamil Nadu and Kashi. It will also extend to all cultures across this Bharathabhoomi  and make this country Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.

Source:  The Hindu

Swami Vivekananda

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  • Mains – GS 1 Indian Society, GS 4 lessons from lives of social reformers


  • January 12 2023 marks the 161st birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda
  • It is observed as National Youth Day.
  • His message of love, compassion and universal acceptance is as relevant today as it was when he first delivered it over a hundred years ago.

Swami Vivekananda:

  • Named Narendra Nath Datta, Swami Vivekananda was an Indian monk who is known for his intellectual contributions to the field of religion.
  • A chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Vivekananda is known to have introduced Hindu philosophies of Yoga and Vedanta to the western world.
  • He is remembered as the founder of the Ramakrishna Mission and the Ramakrishna Math.
  • His best known presence in the West is his speech at the Parliament of the world’s religions in 1893 where he introduced the basic concepts of Hinduism to an international audience.
  • After this session at Chicago, Vivekananda toured around several parts of USA and UK, spreading philosophies on religion.
  • The aspect of Hinduism that Vivekananda represented is known as ‘neo-Vedanta’ which is an interpretation of Hinduism through a Western esoteric lens.
  • He died on July 4, 1902, while he was meditating.
  • Subhas Chandra Bose had once remarked that Vivekananda was the “maker of modern India.”


  • Raja Yoga
  • Karma Yoga
  • Meditation and Its Methods
  • Vedanta: Voice of Freedom
  • Lectures on Bhagavad Gita
  • My India: The India Eternal
  • Powers of The Mind
  • My Master
  • Essentials of Hinduism
  • Living at the Source
  • My Idea of Education
  • Work and Its Secret
  • To the Youth of India
  • Pearls of Wisdom
  • Women of India
  • Life after Death
  • The East and the West
  • Religion of Love

About his teachings:

  • Spiritual primacy is the central theme of Vivekananda’s teachings, through which human beings can succeed in every sphere of their lives.
  • Reason he premises his philosophy, ideas and life work on the premise of reason and urges people, especially the youth, to never let go of reason.
  • Three instruments of knowledge that he propounded are
  • instincts, reason, and inspiration
  • Vedantic Humanism
  • There is only one Self in the universe. There is only one Existence. The entire universe is a manifestation of the absolute One.
  • Religious acceptance was important and not tolerance because tolerance comes out of a superiority complex.
  • The most desirable path for self-realisation was the selfless service of man.
  • Each and every chore of your life should be done with divinity.
  • External rituals of religion are of secondary importance but the spiritual essence of a religion should be preserved and accepted.
  • Divinity within ourselves
  • He asserted that each soul is potentially divine and the goal of human beings should be to manifest this divinity within, which can be done by controlling nature, external and internal.
  • Means of attaining Moksha from worldly pleasure and attachment
  • Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Raja Yoga
  • Karma Yoga
  • Emphasising the importance of work, he said that God can be attained through work.
  • A lot of people fritter away a great amount of their energies because they are oblivious to the secret of work
  • Karma Yoga teaches how to employ to the maximum advantage all our energies in our work.
  • Karma-Yoga teaches how to work for work’s sake, unattached to the results.
  • Bhakti Yoga
  • Bhakti Yoga teaches that love is a vital element of all human beings.
  • It teaches how to love bereft of any ulterior motives
  • All love is expansion, all selfishness is contraction.
  • Raja Yoga
  • Raja Yoga opens up the psychological way to union with God.
  • More the power of concentration, the more knowledge is acquired.
  • For example, a chemist who works in her laboratory, concentrating all the powers of her mind, bringing them into one focus, and throwing them onto the elements; the elements stand analysed and thus her knowledge comes.
  • Faith in oneself
  • All knowledge, power, purity, and freedom are in oneself
  • If you think yourselves weak, weak you will be; if you think yourselves strong, strong you will be
  • Not shy away from taking responsibility for their actions

Significance of his teachings:

  • He emphasised on the importance of Religious acceptance
  • He emphasised that religion is a topic of experience and peace can only last if people understand the real meaning of religion, practise it in their daily lives and feel one with it.
  • He preached that the essential unity of all human beings can be realised are unconditional love for all, judicious detachment, and expansion of self through service of fellow humans despite any sectarian difference
  • He taught to not shy away from taking responsibility for one’s actions
  • Education was the primary means for empowering the people – to equip people for the struggle for life, to bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy, and the courage of a lion.
  • His vision also gave rise to the idea of Antyodaya – Until the upliftment of the last poor person in the country is ensured, development is meaningless.
  • Swami Vivekananda combined thinking of different religions, communities and traditions to inspire liberation from inertia.

Way forward:

  • Government of India sanctioned a “Value Education Project” of the Ramakrishna Mission to help to inculcate in children a moral compass and a value system against the tide of commercialism and consumerism that is sweeping our societies.
  • The Government has embarked on the mission of building a united, strong and modern India to fulfil the vision of the great thinkers like Vivekananda.
  • Such as “Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat”, following the principle of “Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas”.

Source Indian express

Baba’s Explainer – Ozone Hole Recovery

Ozone Hole Recovery


  • GS-2: International Organisations
  • GS-3: Basic Science; Environmental Conservation

Context: The ozone ‘hole’, once considered to be the gravest danger to planetary life, is now expected to be completely repaired by 2066.

Read Complete Details on Ozone Hole Recovery

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Recently in News, “Gaia and Planck” are space-based observatories, launched by which of the following:

  1. European Space Agency (ESA)
  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  3. Virgin Galactic
  4. SpaceX

Q.2) With reference to ‘Basmati Rice’, consider the following statements?

  1. Only India has a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for Basmati Rice.
  2. It is grown in Himalayan foothills of India.

Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH):

  1. It is an academic arm of the World Bank.
  2. The Institute is located in Hamilton, Canada and its facilities are supported by McMaster University.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 13th January 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 12th January – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – c

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