DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –24th June 2023

  • IASbaba
  • June 24, 2023
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IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Analysis
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Artemis Accord


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: India and the United States of America signed the Artemis Accord recently.

About the Indo-US talks:-

  • The Artemis Accord along with some other significant decisions was signed during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s recent USA visit.
  • It is expected to take India and US cooperation in Space Research and bilateral relations to a new high.
  • ISRO is also likely to team up with NASA for a manned mission on the moon by 2025.

About Artemis Accord:-

IMAGE SOURCE: nasawatch.com

  • Artemis Accord is a non-binding set of principles designed to guide civil space exploration and use in the 21st century.
  • It is a non-binding agreement with no financial commitments.
  • Objectives:-
    • Enhancing the governance of civil exploration.
    • Use of outer space with the intention of advancing the Artemis program.
    • It ensures that space exploration is conducted in a safe, sustainable and transparent manner and in full compliance with international law.
  • Establishment: 2020.
  • Established by: NASA, in coordination with the U.S. Department of State, established the Artemis Accords with eight founder nations.
  • Founding members of the Artemis Accords:  Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the US.
  • Artemis Accords signatories as of May 2023: Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Nigeria, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Aims of Artemis Accord:-

  • Peaceful Purposes: Consistent with the Outer Space Treaty, the Artemis Accords affirm that cooperative activities should be exclusively for peaceful purposes and in accordance with international law.  (UPSC CSE: Indian Space Association)
    • Outer Space Treaty: it provides the basic framework of international space law.
  • Transparency: signatories are committed to the broad dissemination of information regarding their respective national space policies and space exploration plans in accordance with their national rules and regulations.
  • Interoperability: Interoperability enhances the potential for space exploration that is safe and robust among cooperating nations.
  • Emergency Assistance: Accords signatories commit to taking all reasonable efforts to render necessary assistance to personnel in outer space who are in distress.
  • Registration of Space Objects: The Artemis Accords reinforce the importance of meeting the obligations under the Registration Convention.
  • Release of Scientific Data: Sharing scientific data with the global community in a timely and transparent manner.
  • Protecting Heritage: Accords signatories intend to preserve historically significant human or robotics landing sites, artefacts, spacecraft etc.
  • Space Resources: The utilization of space resources should be done in a manner that complies with the Outer Space Treaty, can benefit humankind and is critical to sustainable operations.
  • Deconfliction of Activities: Artemis Accords signatories need to provide notification of their activities and coordinate.
    • The area covered by the notification and coordination is referred to as a “safety zone.”
  • Orbital Debris and Spacecraft Disposal: Planning to mitigate orbital debris, as well as disposing safely of spacecraft, is critical to maintaining a safe environment in space.




Q.1) Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea behind the “Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” often talked about in media? (2022)

  1. A hypersonic missile is launched into space to counter the asteroid approaching the Earth and explode it in space.
  2. A spacecraft lands on another planet after making several orbital motions.
  3. A missile is put into a stable orbit around the Earth and deorbits over a target on the Earth.
  4. A spacecraft moves along a comet with the same surface. speed and places a probe on it.

Q.2) If a major solar storm (solar flare) reaches the Earth, which of the following are the possible effects on the Earth? (2022)

  1. GPS and navigation systems could fail.
  2. Tsunamis could occur in equatorial regions.
  3. Power grids could be damaged.
  4. Intense auroras could occur over much of the Earth.
  5. Forest fires could take place over much of the planet.
  6. Orbits of the satellites could be disturbed.

Shortwave radio communication of the aircraft flying over polar regions could be interrupted.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
  2. 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 only
  3. 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

Food Corporation of India (FCI)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, the Central Government directed the Food Corporation of India (FCI) to conduct e-auctions of wheat and rice.


  • The government took the decision to check inflationary trends in retail prices.
  • In order to control the hoarding of wheat, the government has decided that the declaration in the Wheat Stock Monitoring System portal is mandatory for participation in the auctions.
  •  In addition to this, a valid Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) License has also been made mandatory for participation.
    • FSSAI: statutory body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
    • Established in 2008.
    • HQ: New Delhi
    • It is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.
  • The maximum quantity that a buyer can bid is limited to 100 Metric tonnes in this e-auction.
  • To accommodate the small wheat processors and traders, the minimum quantity has been kept to 10 Metric tonnes.

About Food Corporation of India (FCI):-

  • The Food Corporation of India is a statutory body under the Food Corporation’s Act 1964.
  • Established: 1965.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution.
  • HQ: New Delhi

Objectives of FCI:-

  • Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers.
  • Distribution of food grains throughout the country for the public distribution system.
  • Maintaining a satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of foodgrains to ensure National Food Security.
  • Effective Price Support Operations for safeguarding the interest of farmers.

Functions of FCI:-

  • Price stabilization through market intervention operations.
  • Procurement and distribution of pulses, edible oils and sugar. (UPSC CSE: Procurement Reforms )
  • Management of Foodgrains godowns and cold storage.
  • Implementation of a Food Security Scheme in collaboration with the State Governments.
  • Carrying out Food Fortification Programme in order to make available safe and nutritious food to all sections of the population.
    • Food fortification: the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

MUST READ: Controlling the Subsidy bill



Q.1) With reference to organic farming in India, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. 1.‘The National ‘Programme for Organic Production’ (NPOP) is operated under the guidelines and ‘directions of the Union Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. 2.‘The Agricultural and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority ‘(APEDA) functions as the Secretariat for the implementation of NPOP.
  3. 3. Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic State.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements: The nationwide ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at (2017)

  1. expanding the cultivable area under irrigation.
  2. enabling the banks to assess the quantum of loans to be granted to farmers on the basis of soil quality.
  3. checking the overuse of fertilizers in farmlands.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)


  • Prelims –Important Institutions

Context: Recently, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) issued an advisory to Centres, States, and UTs to mitigate deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts by prisoners.


  • The NHRC has observed that most of the unnatural deaths of prisoners occur due to suicide.
  • It has emphasized that the barracks as well as the toilets, are where most suicides take place.
  • It recommended:-
    • Places such as barracks as well as the toilets, to be kept free of objects, which can be used for hanging.
    • Regular checks and vigil on the bed sheets and blankets of inmates.
    • Filling up the existing vacancies of Prison staff, particularly those of Prison Welfare Officers, Probation Officers, Psychologists, and Medical Staff.
  • It has asked for the implementation of its recommendations and action within three months.

About National Human Rights Commission (NHRC):-

IMAGE SOURCE: blog. leaders. in

  • Established: 1993. (UPSC CSE: NHRC)
  • HQ: New Delhi
  • It is a statutory body established under the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993.
    • The Act also provides for the creation of the State Human Rights Commission as well.
    • State Human Rights Commission: it is charged with the protection of Human Rights or investigating any violations that occur within their respective state.
  • Historical Background: NHRC was established in conformity with the Paris Principles.
    •  Paris Principles: adopted for the promotion and protection of human rights in Paris in 1991.
    • It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1993.

Composition of NHRC:-

  • It is a multi-member body consisting of a chairperson, five full-time Members and seven deemed Members.
  • Chairperson: a retired chief justice of India or a judge of the Supreme Court.
  • Appointment: the chairman and members are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of:-
    • Prime Minister (head)
    • Speaker of the Lok Sabha
    • Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
    • Leaders of the Opposition in both Houses of Parliament
    • Union Home Minister.
  • Term: three years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
  • Removal: the President can remove them from office under specific circumstances.
    • They can be removed only on the charges of proven misbehavior or incapacity if proved by an inquiry conducted by a Supreme Court Judge.

Functions of NHRC:-

  • To investigate the violation of human rights.
  • To prevent a human rights violation.
  • Take research about human rights, create awareness campaigns through various mediums, and encourage the work of non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
    • NGO: a group that functions independently of any government.
  • It is the watchdog of human rights in the country.
  • These rights include liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Indian Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India.

MUST READ: Giving Human Rights Commissions more teeth



Q.1) Under the Indian constitution concentration of wealth violates(2021)

  1. The Right to Equality
  2. The Directive Principles of State Policy
  3. The Right to Freedom
  4. The Concept of Welfare

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the concerned magistrate and such an accused is locked up in a police station, not in jail.
  2. During judicial custody, the police officer in charge of the case is not allowed to interrogate the suspect without the approval of the court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Article 370


  • Prelims –Governance.

Context: The Home Minister Amit Shah said that Article 370 was a big impediment in the development of Jammu and Kashmir.

He further claimed that its abrogation has ensured full integration of J&K with the Union, and unprecedented development in the region.

About Article 370:-

IMAGE SOURCE: blogspot.com

  • Article 370 of the Indian constitution dealt with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K).
  • The article was an outcome of Kashmir’s accession to Indian after the Independence.

Historical Background:-

  • Post independence, Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) acceded to the Dominion of India by signing the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 with certain special provisions.
  • On the same line, Article 370 was added to the Indian constitution in 1949.
  • It was added as a ‘temporary provision’, giving certain exemptions to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. (UPSC CSE: Jammu and Kashmir: Role of Media)

Provisions of Article 370:-

  • Article 370 permitted J&K to draft its own Constitution.
  • It further restricted the Indian Parliament’s legislative powers in the state.
  • Except for Defense, Foreign Affairs Finance and Communications, the Indian Government was required State Government’s nod to apply all other laws.
  • The central govt. had no power to impose financial emergency in the state.
  • Emergency could be imposed only on the grounds of internal disturbances and imminent danger from a foreign enemy.
  • Indian nationals belonging to other states cannot buy land or property in the state of J&K.
  • Woman who marries a person belonging to any other state loses her right to ownership.
  • These provisions gave the state government control on how it needs to govern the state without worrying about the consent of the central government.

Removal of Article 370

  • In accordance with the authority afforded by Clause (1) of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, the President of India issued the Constitution (Implementation to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019 on August 5, 2019, repealing the special status previously accorded to Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Jammu and Kashmir no longer has its own constitution, flag, or anthem.
  •  Its population no longer has dual citizenship as a result of the repeal of Article 370.
  • Jammu and Kashmir now abide by all legislative amendments made by the parliament, including the Right to Information Act and the Right to Education Act.
  • Jammu & Kashmir is fully covered by the Indian Constitution and all 890 Central legislation.

MUST READ: Judicial remedies for the Jammu and Kashmir net restrictions



Q.1) Which of the following is/are the exclusive power(s) of Lok Sabha? (2022)

  1. To ratify the declaration of Emergency
  2. To pass a motion of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers
  3. To impeach the President of India

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Q.2) If a particular area is brought under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which one of the following statements best reflects the consequence of it? (2022)

  1. This would prevent the transfer of land of tribal people to non-tribal people.
  2. This would create a local self-governing body in that area.
  3. This would convert that area into a Union Territory.
  4. The State having such areas would be declared a Special Category State.

Grievance Redressal Assessment and Index (GRAI) 2022


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Grievance Redressal Assessment and Index (GRAI) 2022 was launched recently.

About Grievance Redressal Assessment and Index (GRAI) 2022:-

  • Designed by: Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG), Govt. of India. (UPSC CSE: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Mechanisms)
  • Objective: to present an organization-wise comparative picture and provide valuable insights about strengths and areas of improvement regarding the grievance redressal mechanism.
  • Eighty-nine Central Ministries and Departments were assessed and ranked based on a comprehensive index in the dimensions of:-
    •  Efficiency
    • Feedback
    • Domain and
    • Organisational Commitment and corresponding 12 indicators.
  • The Centralised Public Grievance Redressal and Management System (CPGRAMS) was used for this purpose.

Key Findings:-

  • There has been a decline of almost 50% in the average disposal time for Central Ministries/Departments from 32 days in 2021 to 18 days in 2023.
  • The progress in May, 2023 alone showed 1,16,734 grievances redressed by Central Ministries/ Departments, with an average disposal time of 16 days per grievance.
  •  The number of disposed Public Grievance cases has consistently increased, crossing 1 lakh cases per month multiple times.
  • The adoption of the 10-Step CPGRAMS reforms resulted in a significant decrease in the average time for grievance disposal.
    • These reforms have enhanced the efficiency, accountability, and accessibility of the grievance redressal process.

Centralized Public Grievances Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS)

  • CPGRAMS is an online platform that allows citizens to lodge their grievances related to service delivery to public authorities.
  • Developed by: National Informatics Centre (Ministry of Electronics & IT [MeitY]), Directorate of Public Grievances (DPG) and Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG).
  • Launched by: Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances (DARPG) under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions.
  •  It is available 24×7 for citizens to access.
  • It serves as a single portal that is connected to all Ministries/Departments of the Government of India as well as the State governments.
  • This enables seamless communication and grievance redressal between citizens and the government.
  • Each Ministry and State has role-based access to CPGRAMS, allowing them to effectively address and resolve grievances in their respective areas of responsibility.
  • It is also accessible to citizens through a mobile application.
  • The status of the grievance filed in CPGRAMS can be tracked with the unique registration ID provided at the time of registration of the complainant.
  • CPGRAMS also provides appeal facility to the citizens if they are not satisfied with the resolution by the Grievance Officer.
  • Process of appeal:-
    •  After closure of grievance if the complainant is not satisfied with the resolution, he/she can provide feedback.
    • If the rating is ‘Poor’ the option to file an appeal is enabled.
    • The status of the Appeal can be tracked by the petitioner with the grievance registration number.

MUST READ: Grievance Appellate Committees (GACs)



Q.1) Who among the following can join the National Pension System (NPS)? (2017)

  1. Resident Indian citizens only
  2. Persons of age from 21 to 55 only
  3. All State Government employees joining the services after the state of notification by the respective State Governments
  4. All Central Government employees including those of Armed Forces joining the services on or after 1st April, 2004

Q.2) Recognition of Prior Learning Scheme’ is sometimes mentioned in the news with reference to (2017)

  1. Certifying the skills acquire by construction workers through traditional channels.
  2. Enrolling the persons in Universities for distance learning programmes.
  3. Reserving some skilled jobs to rural and urban poor in some public sector undertakings.
  4. Certifying the skills acquired by trainees under the National Skill Development Programme.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recently, a consumer panel slapped ₹1.5-crore fine on a Delhi hospital for sperm mix-up during In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure.


  • A West Delhi-based hospital that performed an in vitro fertilization procedure for a Hyderabad-based couple, by using donor semen that did not belong to the husband, has been instructed by the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC) to pay a fine of ₹1.5 crore for negligence and resorting to unethical practices.

About In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Verywell.com

  • IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology (ART).
  • ART: includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility.
  •  This involves procedures such as IVF, intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility medication.
  • IVF procedure: It works by using a combination of medicines and surgical procedures to help sperm fertilize an egg, and help the fertilized egg implant in the uterus.

Process of IVF:-

  • It involves retrieving eggs from ovaries .
  • These are then manually combined with sperm in a lab for fertilization.
  • Several days after fertilization, the fertilized egg (now called an embryo) is placed inside a uterus.
  • Pregnancy occurs when this embryo implants itself into the uterine wall.

Benefits of IVF: IVF can be used to Treat Infertility of Different Types such as:-

  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes.
  • Male factor infertility including decreased sperm count or sperm motility.
  • Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure and uterine fibroids.
  • Women who have had their fallopian tubes removed.
  • Individuals with a genetic disorder.
  • Unexplained infertility.

Challenges Faced with IVF

Multiple Births:-

  • IVF increases the risk of multiple births if more than one embryo is implanted in the uterus.

Premature Delivery and Low Birth Weight:-

  • Use of IVF slightly increases the risk that a baby will be born early or with a low birth weight.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHS):-

  • Use of injectable fertility drugs can cause OHS, in which ovaries become swollen and painful.


  • The rate of miscarriage for women who conceive using IVF with fresh embryos is similar to that of women who conceive naturally about 15 to 25 percent but the rate increases with maternal age.


  • Use of IVF can be financially, physically and emotionally draining.

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC):-

  • Established : 1988
  • HQ: New Delhi.
  • It is a quasi-judicial commission in India set up under the Consumer Protection Act of 1986.
  • Head of commission: a sitting or retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.
  • The Act mandates the establishment of Consumer Protection Councils at the Centre as well as in each State and District, to promote consumer awareness.
  • These councils are :-
    • Central Council: is headed by Minister In-charge of the Department of Consumer Affairs in the Central Government
    • State Councils: is headed by the Minister In-charge of Consumer Affairs in the State Governments.
  • It also provides for a 3-tier structure consisting of:-
    •  National Commission
    • State Commissions and
    •  District Commissions

MUST READ: Test Tube Babies



Q.1) Consider the following: (2022)

  1. Aarogya Setu
  2. COWIN
  3. DigiLocker

Which of the above are built on top of open-source digital platforms?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Biofilms can form on medical implants within human tissues.
  2. Biofilms can form on food and food processing surfaces.
  3. Biofilms can exhibit antibiotic resistance.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Rethinking importance of cord blood in regenerative medicine


  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: Cord blood banking is not a ‘biological insurance’ and its role in regenerative medicine is hypothetical. It is recommended only if there is a family member (siblings or biological parents only), currently suffering from diseases approved to be benefitted by allogenic stem cell transplantation.

About Cord Blood:

  • The blood from the newborn that is still present in the placenta and umbilical cord after birth is known as cord blood.
    • Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of stem cells; cord blood banking is the process of conserving it for use in the future.
  • Hematopoietic stem cells, which are unique cells, are present in them and can be employed to cure certain disorders.
  • In the body, hematopoietic stem cells can develop into many types of blood cells.

About Cord Blood Banking:

  • A System that preserves umbilical cord blood for use in the future is known as a Cord Blood Bank.
  • Public cord blood banks operate similarly to public blood banks in that they accept donations to be utilised for anybody in need. Historically, the medical establishment has been more open to the idea of public cord blood banking. Private cord blood banks only keep cord blood for the donor or the donor’s family to potentially use.
  • However, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) asserts that there is no scientific support for cord blood storage for future self-use, posing moral and social concerns.
  • The ICMR does not advocate using stem cells for commercial purposes and Commercial cord blood banking also.

Significance of Cord Blood:

  • Despite primarily coming from donors, cord blood stem cells are now being used to treat a number of deadly diseases, most notably malignancies, blood disorders, and genetic diseases of the blood and immune system.
  • Recent research has revealed that cord blood transplants have special benefits over conventional bone marrow transplants, especially for children.
  • In rare circumstances where a suitable bone marrow donor cannot be found, cord blood transplants can even save a patient’s life.
  • There is a 25% probability that siblings will match, and there is a 50% chance that grandparents and parents will match using cord blood.

Using the stem cells in cord blood to treat a disease has the following benefits compared with using those in bone marrow:

  • Stem cells from cord blood can be given to more people than those from bone marrow.
    • More matches are possible when a cord blood transplant is used than when a bone marrow transplant is used.
    • In addition, the stem cells in cord blood are less likely to cause rejection than those in bone marrow.
  • It is easier to collect cord blood than it is to collect bone marrow. Collecting bone marrow poses some risks and can be painful for the donor.
  • Cord blood can be frozen and stored. It is ready for anyone who needs it. Bone marrow must be used soon after it is collected.
  • Stem cells in cord blood can be used to strengthen the immune system during cancer treatments. Bone marrow stem cells do not have this capability.

Concerns related to Cord Blood Banking:

  • Stem cell banking has been aggressively marketed even as its use is still in experimental stages.
    • But these companies charge enormous fees from parents to preserve cells.
  • The concern here is that it is merely by emotional marketing that companies convince parents to bank the cells for several years promising future therapeutic use.
  • Private companies who have forayed into this field offer packages anywhere between Rs 50,000 and Rs 1 lakh to store and preserve the cells in right conditions.
  • So far there is no scientific basis for preservation of cord blood for future self-use and this practice, therefore, raises ethical and social concerns.
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) does not recommend commercial stem cell banking.

Cord blood banking in India:

  • License: Umbilical Cord Blood banks (UCB) are permitted only under license and monitoring by the Central Drug Standards Controlling Organization (CDSCO).
  • Repositories of stored cord blood: ‘Community’ or ‘social’ banks, are repositories of stored cord blood from multiple donors, accessible to those who register for these services with the stem cell banking companies.
    • The stored stem cells remain the property of the client for the first two years after which they are transferred to the social banking repository.
  • Initially, banking started in the metro urban class of people who could afford the cost of banking.
    • Now with intensive advertisement by the cord blood banks, the upper middle and middle class is getting aware about banking and opting for it even in smaller cities and towns.

Way Forward:

Commercial cord blood banking involves storing a newborn’s umbilical cord blood stem cells for potential future medical use. The decision to bank cord blood is personal and should be based on individual circumstances and considerations such as the family history of genetic disorders and the likelihood of using the stored cells.

It is important to carefully research and compare different cord blood banking options and consider the cost, storage options, and reputation of the facility before deciding.

Source: The Hindu

The Liaquat-Nehru pact


  • Mains – GS 1 (History)

Context: Death anniversary of Syama Prasad Mookerjee was marked recently. He resigned from the cabinet of JL Nehru in April 1950 over the controversial Nehru-Liaquat Pact.

About Nehru-Liaquat Pact:

  • The Nehru-Liaquat Pact also known as the Delhi Pact, was a bilateral agreement signed between India and Pakistan in 1950.
  • The pact was signed in order to provide a framework for the treatment of minorities in the two countries.
  • The need for such a pact was felt by the minorities in both countries following Partition which was accompanied by massive communal riots.


  • The need for such a pact was felt by minorities in both countries following Partition, which was accompanied by massive communal rioting.
  • In 1950, as per some estimates, over a million Hindus and Muslims migrated from and to East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), amid communal tension and riots such as the 1950 East Pakistan riots and the Noakhali riots.

Features of the Pact: Under the Nehru-Liaquat pact, the two countries agreed upon:

  • that the minorities throughout its territory will have complete equality of citizenship, irrespective of religion.
  • Members of the minorities shall have equal opportunity with members of the majority community to participate in the public life of their country.
  • Minority commissions will also be set up in both the countries
  • refugees will be allowed to return to dispose of their property, abducted women and looted property were to be returned, forced conversions were unrecognized.

Importance of the agreement for both the countries:

  • It was decided that the minorities would be entitled to complete equality of citizenship, irrespective of religion, and a full sense of security in respect of life, culture, property and personal honour, freedom of movement within each country and freedom of occupation, speech and worship.
  • It was also decided that the minorities would have equal opportunity with members of the majority community to participate in the public life of their country, to hold political or other office, and to serve in their country’s civil and armed forces.
  • Both Governments declare these rights to be fundamental and undertake to enforce them effectively.
  • Both Governments also emphasize that the allegiance and loyalty of the minorities would be to the State of which they are citizens.
  • It was also decided that the Government of their own State would look for the redressal of the grievances of minorities.
  • This period saw India and Pakistan facilitating a transfer of populations, rationalizing bilateral relations after the violence of Partition, sorting out canal-water issues and evacuee property disputes without the venom you see between them today.
  • Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wanted a no-war pact with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan.
    • The mere fact that it was actually discussed measures for us the “normal” goodwill that existed despite the years of quarrelling during the Pakistan Movement.
  • The most remarkable achievement was the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 India did extract from it the advantage of using some water from Pakistan’s three “exclusive” western rivers, Sindh, Chenab and Jhelum, for consumptive use, that is, agriculture.

Nehru-Liaquat pact  define the Indo-Pakistani relationship as one that could be negotiated in inherited frameworks of international relations based  on the paramount capacity of the nation state.

Source:    Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements regarding, the National Human Rights Commission of India:

  1. It was established in 1953.
  2. It is a constitutional body.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2) Consider the following statements regarding, Food Corporation of India :

  1. It’s under the Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. Maintaining satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of foodgrains is one of its functions.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q3) Consider the following statements regarding, In vitro fertilization (IVF):

  1. It can help infertile couples become parents.
  2. It can increases the risk of multiple births.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 24th June 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 23rd June – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – c

Q.3) -d

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