DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 23rd August 2023

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  • August 23, 2023
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Hurricane Hilary


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: Recently, Hurricane Hilary caused extensive damage in the United States.


  • Hilary is the first tropical storm to hit Southern California in 84 years.

About Hurricane Hilary:-

IMAGE SOURCE: dailybreeze.com

  • Location: near the west coast of Baja California.
    • Baja California: The long Mexican peninsula bound by the Gulf of California in the east and the North Pacific Ocean in the west.

Origin and Trajectory:-

  • It originated as a Tropical Storm off the shores of Mainland Mexico.
  • This weather phenomenon rapidly transformed into a Category 2 hurricane and then into a Category 3 storm
  • Soon, it was officially designated as a Category 4 hurricane, nearly a day before its projected timeline.
  • This rapid intensification is anticipated to continue, leaving open the possibility of a Category 5 upgrade before eventual weakening. ( Cyclones forecast)

Categories of Hurricanes:-

  • Hurricanes are categorized on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale based on their maximum sustained wind speeds.
  • The scale ranges from Category 1 (weakest) to Category 5 (strongest).
  • Each category represents a higher wind speed and potential for damage.

Possible Factors behind its intensification:-

Scientists expected climate change to not only spike the occurrence of such hurricanes but also make them more intense due to the following implications:-

  • Rise of the surface temperatures of the oceans: global mean sea surface temperature has gone up by close to 0.9 degree Celsius since 1850 and around 0.6 degrees Celsius over the last four decades.
  • Higher sea surface temperatures: it causes marine heat waves, an extreme weather event, which can also make storms like hurricanes and tropical cyclones more intense.
    • Marine heatwaves: they are extended periods of anomalously warm sea surface temperatures in the ocean.
  • El Nino: The situation has been worsened by El Nino, developing for the first time in seven years.
  • This has weakened the vertical wind shear in the eastern Pacific, allowing more hurricanes in the region.
    • El Nino: a weather pattern that refers to an abnormal warming of surface waters in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Risk or Threat:-

  • Unlike hurricane-prone states on the Gulf of Mexico, California and Mexico’s west coast lack experience in dealing with such events. (Bomb Cyclone)
  • Its expected landfall in the Baja peninsula of Mexico poses risks of landslides, flooding, and extensive damage due to the region’s geographical features and population density.

About Hurricane:-

  • Hurricanes are tropical storms that form in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Wind speeds: at least 119 kilometers (74 miles) per hour.
  • Hurricanes derive their energy from the heat released when moist air rises and condenses into clouds and rain.

Key characteristics of hurricanes:-

  • Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters when the sea surface temperature is typically above 26 degrees Celsius (79 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Low-Pressure Centre: Hurricanes have a well-defined centre of low atmospheric pressure, known as the
  • Strong Winds: winds can reach sustained speeds of at least 74 miles per hour (119 kilometers per hour) or higher.
  • Heavy Rainfall.

MUST READ: Hurricane Ida



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. High clouds primarily reflect solar radiation and cool the surface of the Earth.
  2. Low clouds have a high absorption of infrared radiation emanating from the Earth’s surface and thus cause a warming effect.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. The Barren Island volcano is an active volcano located in the Indian territory.
  2. Barren Island lies about 140 km east of Great Nicobar.
  3. The last time the Barren Island volcano erupted was in 1991 and it has remained inactive since then.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP)


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways Shri Nitin Gadkari launched the Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP) recently.

About Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP):-

  • Launched:2023.
  • Implementation: October 1, 2023.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • Objectives: to enhance road safety by elevating vehicle safety standards for up to 3.5-tonne vehicles in India.
  • It is a safety assessment program for passenger vehicles weighing less than 3.5 tonnes and capable of seating up to eight people.

Salient Features of Bharat NCAP:-

  • It proposes a mechanism of awarding ‘Star Ratings’ to automobiles based on their performance in crash tests.
  • The voluntary Bharat NCAP would assign vehicles between one and five stars on parameters such as Adult Occupant Protection (AOP), Child Occupant Protection (COP), and Safety Assist Technologies (SAT).
    • This will help assess to what extent a car may suffer damage in the event of an
  • Potential car buyers can refer to these star ratings to decide which car to buy by comparing the safety standards.
  • Bharat NCAP standard is aligned with global benchmarks and it is beyond minimum regulatory requirements.
  • The testing of vehicles for this programme will be carried out at testing agencies, with the necessary infrastructure.

Benefits of NCAP:

  • Develop a safety-sensitive car market in India.
  • Consumer Awareness.
  • Enhanced Safety and Export Potential.
  • Making the Indian automobile industry self-reliant. (Atmanirbhar Bharat 3.0)

MUST READ: Electric Vehicles



Q.1) Consider the following actions: (2023)

  1. Detection of car crash/ collision which results in the deployment of airbags almost instantaneously.
  2. Detection of accidental free fall of a laptop towards the ground which results in the immediate turning off
  3. of the hard drive.
  4. Detection of the tilt of the smartphone which results in the rotation of display between portrait and landscape mode.

In how many of the above actions is the function of the accelerometer required?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2)  Which one of the following is the context in which the term “qubit” is mentioned? (2022)

  1. Cloud Services
  2. Quantum Computing
  3. Visible Light Communication Technologies
  4. Wireless Communication Technologies

Agnibaan SOrTeD (SubOrbital Technological Demonstrator)


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: A Chennai-based start-up AgniKul Cosmos, has commenced the process of integrating its cutting-edge Agnibaan SOrTeD rocket at its private Launchpad in Sriharikota.


  • The integration process was initiated on Independence Day on August 15, 2023.
  • A successful launch would make AgniKul the second Indian space tech start-up to send its launch vehicle into space after Skyroot Aerospace.
  • AgniKul: Established in 2017, by aerospace engineers Srinath Ravichandran and Moin SPM, along with IIT-Madras faculty member Prof. Sathyanarayan R Chakravarthy.

About Agnibaan SOrTeD (SubOrbital Technological Demonstrator):-

  • Type: single-stage launch vehicle.
  • Powered by: AgniKul’s patented Agnilet engine.
    • Agnilet engine: It is the world’s sole single-piece 3D-printed engine.
    • It is a single-piece, 6 kilonewton (kN) semi-cryogenic engine.
    • Initial trial: early 2021.
    • Verified at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Thiruvananthapuram.
    • 3D printing: uses materials such as plastics and metals to convert products envisaged on computer-aided design to real three-dimensional items.
  • Payloads: up to 100 kg.
  • Altitude: 700 km
  • Stages: It is a customizable launch vehicle that could be launched in one or two stages.
  • Unique feature: unlike traditional sounding rockets that launch from guide rails, it will lift off vertically and follow a predetermined trajectory to perform a precisely orchestrated set of maneuvers during flight.
  • The rocket’s first stage could have up to seven Agnilet engines, depending on the mission, which are powered by Liquid Oxygen and Kerosene.
  • The rocket is also designed for launch from more than 10 different launch ports.
  • To ensure its compatibility with multiple launch ports, AgniKul has built a launch pedestal named ‘Dhanush’.

 MUST READ: India’s first private rocket – Vikram-S



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Ballistic missiles are jet-propelled at subsonic speeds throughout their flights, while cruise missiles are rocket-powered only in the initial phase of flight.
  2. Agni-V is a medium-range supersonic cruise missile, while BrahMos is a solid-fuelled intercontinental ballistic missile.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea behind the “Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” often talked about in media? (2022)

  1. A hypersonic missile is launched into space to counter the asteroid approaching the Earth and explode it in space.
  2. A spacecraft lands on another planet after making several orbital motions.
  3. A missile is put into a stable orbit around the Earth and deorbits over a target on the Earth.
  4. A spacecraft moves along a comet with the same surface. speed and places a probe on its

India's foreign exchange reserves


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: As per recent data by the Reserve Bank of India, India’s foreign exchange reserves snapped a three-week losing streak.


  • India’s foreign exchange reserves also increased by $708 million to $602 billion in the week ended August 11.
  • The rise in the reserves was mainly on account of an increase in foreign currency assets, which grew by $999 million to $534 billion in the previous week.

About foreign exchange reserves:-


  • Foreign exchange reserves are assets held on reserve by a central bank.
  • It includes foreign currencies, gold, Special Drawing Rights (SDR) and Reserve tranche of IMF.
  • These assets are held to ensure that the central bank has backup funds if the national currency rapidly devalues or becomes altogether insolvent.

Objectives of Holding Forex Reserves:-

  • Supporting and maintaining confidence in the policies for monetary and exchange rate
  • Provides the capacity to intervene in support of the national or union currency.
  • Limits external vulnerability by maintaining foreign currency liquidity to absorb shocks during times of crisis or when access to borrowing is curtailed.

India’s Forex Reserve:-

  • India’s FOREX is governed by RBI under the RBI Act, of 1934.
  • It includes:-
  1. Foreign Currency Assets(FCA)
  • Assets that are valued based on a currency other than the country’s own currency.
  • It is the largest component of the forex reserve.
  • It is expressed in dollar terms.
  1. Gold reserves:
  • Special Drawing Rights
  • Created in 1969.
  • Created by: IMF.
  • Objective: to supplement its member countries’ official reserves.
  • It is an international reserve asset.
  • It is neither a currency nor a claim on the IMF.
  • The value of the SDR is calculated from a weighted basket of major currencies, including the S. Dollar, the Euro, the Japanese Yen, the Chinese Yuan, and the British Pound.
  1. Reserve position with the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • It implies a portion of the required quota of currency each member country must provide to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that can be utilized for its own purposes.
  • It is basically an emergency account that IMF members can access at any time without agreeing to conditions or paying a service fee.

MUST READ: Foreign Exchange Management Act



Q.1) With reference to the Indian economy, consider the following statements (2022)

  1. An increase in Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) indicates the appreciation of the rupee.
  2. An increase in the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) indicates an improvement in trade competitiveness.
  3. An increasing trend in domestic inflation relative to inflation in other countries is likely to cause an increasing divergence between NEER and REER.

Which of the above statements is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Which one of the following situations best reflects “Indirect Transfers” often talked about in media recently with reference to India? (2022)

  1. An Indian company investing in a foreign enterprise and paying taxes to the foreign country on the profits arising out of its investment
  2. A foreign company investing in India and paying taxes to the country of its base on the profits arising out of its investment
  3. An Indian company purchases tangible assets in a foreign country and sells such assets after their value increases and transfers the proceeds to India
  4. A foreign company transfers shares and such shares derive their substantial value from assets located in India

Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)


  • Prelims – Social Issues

Context: The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) will soon announce the results of the research award proposals it had invited to study the impact of various schemes and public policy initiatives of the Union government.


  • The Indian Council of Social Science Research had recently given a special call for short-term research proposals to assess the reach and socioeconomic impact of 31 government schemes, including Ujjwala Yojana, Awas Yojana, Ayushman Bharat, New Education Policy, Mudra Yojana and Start-up India among others.
  • Objective: to independently assess the impact of various government schemes
  • Funding: Each selected project will be funded up to ₹6 lakh.
    • For collaborative projects, the funding is fixed at up to ₹30 lakh.
  • Eligibility: Research scholars from recognized institutions, civil servants, officers from defense services, and other professionals with social science perspectives having not less than 20 years of regular service will be eligible to apply.

 About the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR):-

  • Established: 1969.
  • HQ: New Delhi.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Education.
  • Objective: to promote research in social sciences in the country.

Functions of ICSSR:-

  • It promotes research in social sciences in India.
  • It provides grants for projects, fellowships, international collaboration, capacity building, surveys, publications, etc.
  • It provides library and information support services to researchers in social sciences.
  • It has developed ICSSR Data Service to serve as a national data service for promoting a powerful research environment.

 MUST READ: Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission



Q.1) With reference to Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Private and public hospitals must adopt it.
  2. As it aims to achieve universal health coverage, every citizen of India should be part of it ultimately.
  3. It has seamless portability across the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the funds under the Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS), which of the following statements is correct? (2020)

  1. MPLADS funds must be used to create durable assets like physical infrastructure for health, education, etc.
  2. A specified portion of each MP’s fund must benefit SC/ST populations.
  3. MPLADS funds are sanctioned on a yearly basis and the unused funds cannot be carried forward to the next year.
  4. The district authority must inspect at least 10% of all works under implementation every year.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2, and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, and 4 only

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the United States of America’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine for use in women during pregnancy to protect the baby.


  • This vaccine has been developed by
  • The approval allows the vaccine to be given to women 32 to 36 weeks into pregnancy for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection and severe disease in infants until they are six months old.

About Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV):-

  • It is a common respiratory virus.
  • It is highly contagious in naturee., it has a high potential to infect people.
  • It commonly infects children, especially those under 2 to 6 years of age.
  • In most of the cases it has symptoms like the common cold.
  • It can also cause more severe infections, especially in people at high risk.
  • These infections include bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, an infection of the lungs.
    • Bronchiolitis: an inflammation of the small airways in the lung.
    • Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs.


  • It spreads from person to person through:-
  • By coughing and sneezing.
  • Direct contact.
  • Touching an object or surface with the virus on it and then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes.


  • People who have an RSV infection are usually contagious for 3 to 8 days.
  • But sometimes infants and people with weakened immune systems can continue to spread the virus for as long as 4 weeks.


  • Runny nose
  • Decrease in appetite
  • Cough
  • Sneezing
  • Fever(Dengue and DNA vaccines)
  • Wheezing
  • The symptoms of RSV infection usually start about 4 to 6 days after infection.


  • There is no reliable cure available for RSV infection.
  • The recent vaccine developed by Pfizer can be used in women during pregnancy to protect the baby. (iNCOVACC)

 MUST READ: Vaccine Development for COVID-19



Q.1) Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body? (2022)

  1. They protect the environmental allergens. body
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from diseases caused by pathogens.

Q.2) In the context of vaccines manufactured to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Serum Institute of India produced a COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield using an mRNA platform.
  2. The Sputnik V vaccine is manufactured using a vector-based platform.
  3. COVAXIN is an inactivated pathogen-based vaccine.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Effective Leadership


  • Mains – GS 4 (Ethics)

Context: Emotional intelligence, or the ability to understand and manage one’s emotions and those of others, is crucial for effective leadership in this technology driven modern era especially for the good governance.

About Emotional Intelligence (EI):

  • Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manage and influence emotions of others. It is not always virtuous and can be used as a tool for positive and negative ends.

Elements of EI (as given by Daniel Goleman)

  • Self-Awareness: It is the skill of being aware of and understanding one’s emotions as they occur and as they evolve.
  • Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can reign in one’s emotions and thus will think before responding.
  • Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.
  • Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.
  • Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.

Development of EI among civil servants:

  • Training: through practice and feedback, civil servants can learn from their mistakes using real life examples and reflection opportunities.
  • Experiential learning: Emotional and behavioral changes require life activities, which are primarily outside of the traditional classroom, and is commonly referred to as experiential learning.
  • Learning transfer: it refers to how people use what they learn in training for performance improvement.
    • Learning transfer seeks to reinforce and apply the information learned on the job immediately.
  • Support: Coaching, encouragement and peer support can assist with lasting change and positive development of EI competencies.

Significance of Emotional Intelligence in Civil/Public Services:

  • Better decision making: Biological evidence suggests that decision-making is neurologically impossible without being informed by emotions.
    • Therefore, EI furthers neutrality and impartiality when there is conflict of interest.
  • Better Communication: Emotionally intelligent people listen to other people and know how to communicate effectively (Goleman 1997).
    • Hence, an emotionally intelligent Civil Servant manages to execute policies effectively through better communication with public at large.
    • Empathy and integrity takes precedence over personal biases when one is emotionally sorted out.
  • Management of disruptive emotions– A civil servant while working in high-pressure environment often becomes subject to political pressure, life threats etc.
    • Only a public servant who is Emotionally Intelligent would be able to handle such pressures without succumbing to anger, depression or compromise.
  • Better execution of Policies– According to a research working with colleagues who are not self-aware can cut a team’s success in half and, lead to increased stress and decreased motivation.
  • Fosters Leadership– Self-awareness is at the core of everything. It describes the ability to not only understand one’s strengths and weaknesses, but to recognize emotions and the effect they have on herself (public servant) and her team’s performance.
  • More efficient administration: Because Emotional intelligence helps to –
    • Respond to situations very flexibly.
    • Take advantage of the right time and right place.
    • Make sense of ambiguous or contradictory messages.
  • Build Trust with people: Emotionally intelligent people listen to other people’s emotions and can empathize with them.
    • Emotionally intelligent people act ethically and build trust through integrity and reliability.
  • Better Governance: All public service is people service. Relationships are at the heart of governance.
    • To the extent that public administration mirrors the hearts and minds of people, it is governance.
    • EI helps in building relationships with people and ensures better implementation of public schemes.

Negative side of EI:

  • Emotions are complex, and they cannot always be managed or controlled.
    • Emotional intelligence does not guarantee that one’s emotions will always work in their favour.
    • Example: Hitler speeches to play with Germans emotions
  • Emotional intelligence is not a substitute for critical thinking or problem-solving skills, and it cannot guarantee success in all situations.
  • Left wing extremism and Terror organisations manipulating innocent youth emotions and led them to fight against state.

Way Forward:

Thus, the leaders/bureaucrats who possess high levels of emotional intelligence are able to coach teams, control stress, give criticism, and work effectively with others. To improve emotional intelligence, leaders can practice self-reflection and regulate their emotions, remain motivated, show empathy, and develop social skills such as conflict resolution and effective communication.

Source:    Economic Times

Marine Heat Waves


  • Mains – GS 1 (Geography) and GS 3 (Environment)

Context: Extreme heat has plagued the Mediterranean for weeks ending with wildfires across nine countries in the region from Algeria to Greece. This increasing heat has affected the marine life as well.

About Mediterranean Sea:

  • The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean and almost completely enclosed by land:
    • on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia,
    • on the south by North Africa, and
    • On the east by the Levant.
  • The Mediterranean Sea covers an area of 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates the Iberian Peninsula in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km (9 mi) wide.
  • The Mediterranean Sea encompasses a vast number of islands, some of them being of volcanic origin.
    • The two by far largest islands are Sicily and Sardinia.
  • In the extreme northeast, it is connected to the Black Sea via the Dardanelles Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus Strait.
  • The Mediterranean Sea is also connected to the Red Sea via the Suez Canal in the southeast.
  • 22 countries and one territory (Gibraltar – a British Overseas Territory) have coasts on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Mediterranean Sea offers a staggering 46,000 km (28,600 mi) long coastline and includes 15 marginal seas, such as the Balearic Sea, the Adriatic Sea, the Levantine Sea and the Ionian Sea.

About Marine heat waves (MHW):

  • A marine heatwave is defined as when seawater temperatures exceed a seasonally varying threshold (usually the 90th percentile) for at least five consecutive days. Successive heatwaves with gaps of 2 days or less are considered part of the same event.
  • Due to increased greenhouse gas emissions, extended periods of extreme warming in seas and oceans have increased in frequency by 50% in the past 10 years and are becoming more severe.
  • According to a recent forecast by an organisation Mercator Ocean International, at present, MHWs have gripped:
    • the north-east Pacific,
    • the southern hemisphere in the southern Indian Ocean and the Pacific,
    • the north-east Atlantic, tropical North Atlantic, and the Mediterranean.

Reasons for Marine Heat Waves:

  • The main cause of marine heat waves is the increase in ocean temperature due to the absorption of greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere, which leads to global warming.
  • Natural climate variability can also contribute to marine heat waves, including changes in ocean currents, weather patterns, and atmospheric circulation.
  • The other common drivers of marine heatwaves include ocean currents, which can build up areas of warm water and air-sea heat flux, or warming through the ocean surface from the atmosphere.
  • Winds can enhance or suppress the warming in a marine heatwave, and climate models like El Niño can change the likelihood of events occurring in certain regions.

Impacts of Marine Heatwaves:

  • Coral bleaching: Marine heatwaves can lead to coral bleaching, which is the loss of photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae, from the coral. This can ultimately lead to the death of coral.
  • Ocean acidification: Marine heatwaves can exacerbate ocean acidification, which is the increase in acidity of seawater due to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
    • This can have negative impacts on marine organisms that build shells or skeletons out of calcium carbonate, such as corals and some types of plankton.
  • Harmful algal blooms: Marine heatwaves can cause harmful algal blooms, which can produce toxins that are harmful to humans and marine life.
  • Ocean circulation: Marine heatwaves can also affect ocean circulation by altering the temperature and density of ocean water, which can have implications for ocean currents and the transport of nutrients and heat around the globe.
  • Marine biodiversity: Marine heatwaves can affect the composition and abundance of marine species, leading to changes in marine biodiversity.

Benefits to some species:

  • Jellyfish bloom: Jellyfish are thriving because of higher temperatures, as well as nutrient run-off from farms and sewage.
    • Overfishing and loss of fish habitat mean the jellyfish have few or no predators.
    • When currents push the animals together, the Mediterranean turns into a crowded jellyfish hotspot.
  • Invasive species: The sea also hosts around 1,000 invasive species — the highest number in the world.
    • While this is not directly linked to climate change or rising temperatures such conditions clearly favour species introduced from warmer seas.
    • For instance, invasive Rabbitfish native to the Indo-Pacific and Rea Sea feed on seaweed and have reshaped the habitat of the eastern Mediterranean.
    • Underwater deserts have replaced dense seaweed forests.

Way Forward: Suggestive measures

  • Mitigation: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is crucial to slow down global warming and the frequency of MHWs.
    • Governments and industries should invest in renewable energy sources, promote energy efficiency, and adopt sustainable practices to mitigate climate change.
  • Adaption: National and sub-national governments should design and implement measures to protect communities and build regional ocean resilience.
    • Examples of such measures include creating and protecting marine protected areas to act as refuges for species of coral, kelp and seagrass; and enforcing catch management or fishing restrictions to help limit economic losses linked to MHWs.
  • Nature Based Solutions: Governments must invest in nature-based solutions alongside ambitiously reducing fossil fuel-based emissions to achieve the goals agreed to under the Paris Agreement.
  • International Collaboration: Foster international collaboration and networks, such as the Marine Heatwave International Group, to share knowledge, data, and best practices in addressing MHWs on a global scale.
  • Research and Monitoring: Invest in research and monitoring programs to better understand MHWs, their impacts, and their future projections.

Source:   Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Disease Vaccine
1.Malaria Sputnik V
2.Dengue DEN-2
3.Typhoid iNCOVACC

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Hurricane Hilary originated as a Tropical Storm off the shores of Mainland Mexico.


It is the first tropical storm to hit Southern California in 84 years.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


Foreign exchange reserves are assets held on reserve by a central bank in foreign currencies.


India’s Forex Reserve contains only US dollars.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence (EI)? Highlight its significance; discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. (250 words)

Q.2) How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Mediterranean climate has been changing due to humanizing landscape and natural? Discuss. (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 23rd August 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 22nd August – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – d

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