- Mains – GS 2 (Governance), GS 3 (Science and Technology) and GS 4 (Ethics)
Context: During the annual Group of Seven (G-7) Summit, Leaders initiated the Hiroshima AI Process (HAP) to regulate Artificial Intelligence (AI).
About Hiroshima AI process:
- It aims at the adoption of international technical standards for trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI).
- The G7 leaders have agreed to create a ministerial forum known as the “Hiroshima AI Process” that will discuss issues regarding generative AI tools like ChatGPT, such as intellectual property rights and disinformation.
- It is scheduled to be formed by the end of this year.
Significance of Hiroshima AI process:
- It can help the countries develop a common understanding on some key regulatory issues while ensuring that any disagreement doesn’t result in complete discord.
- The process can bring greater clarity to the role and scope of the ‘fair use’ doctrine in the use of AI for various purposes.
- It can also differentiate use for machine-learning per se from other AI-related uses of copyrighted materials. This in turn could affect the global discourse and practice on the issue.
About Artificial Intelligence (AI):
- Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Specific applications of AI include expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition and machine vision.
- Examples: Robotics and Automation, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Pattern recognition is a subset of machine learning etc.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI):
- Healthcare Sector: Machine learning is being used for faster, cheaper and more accurate diagnosis and thus improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. For
- Example, IBM Watson and chatbots are some of such tools.
- Business Sector: To take care of highly repetitive tasks Robotic process automation is applied which perform faster and effortlessly than humans.
- Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to provide better customer service.
- Education Sector: AI can make some of the educational processes automated such as grading, rewarding marks etc. therefore giving educators more time.
- Further, it can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI may change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
- Financial Sector: It can be applied to the personal finance applications and could collect personal data and provide financial advice.
- today software trades more than humans on the Wall Street.
- Legal Sector: Automation can lead to faster resolution of already pending cases by reducing the time taken while analyzing cases thus better use of time and more efficient processes.
- Manufacturing sector: Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now, however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
- Intelligent Robots: Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure.
- Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence.
- Speech Recognition: There are intelligent systems that are capable of hearing and grasping the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while human talks to it.
- Cyber Security: In the 20th conference on e-governance in India it was discussed that AI can provide more teeth to cyber security and must be explored.
Ethical Use of AI:
- While AI tools present a range of new functionality for businesses, the use of AI also raises ethical questions because, for better or worse, an AI system will reinforce what it has already learned.
- This can be problematic because machine learning algorithms, which underpin many of the most advanced AI tools, are only as smart as the data they are given in training.
- Because a human being selects what data is used to train an AI program, the potential for machine learning bias is inherent and must be monitored closely.
- AI’s ethical challenges include the following: bias due to improperly trained algorithms and human bias; misuse due to deep fakes and phishing; legal concerns including AI libel and copyright issues; elimination of jobs; and data privacy concerns, particularly in the banking, healthcare and legal fields.
Challenges in Artificial Intelligence:
- Lack of enabling data ecosystems.
- The low intensity of AI research.
- Inadequate availability of AI expertise, manpower and skilling opportunities.
- High resource cost and low awareness for adopting AI in business processes.
- Unclear privacy, security and ethical regulations.
- Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.
- Only 4% of AI professionals trained in Emerging technologies; low H Index (citation) and Data sets.
Government efforts regarding artificial intelligence in India:
- National Programme on Artificial Intelligence: It was announced in the Interim Budget 2019. The programme would be catalysed by the establishment of the National Centre on Artificial Intelligence as a hub along with 6 centres of excellence.
- International Centre for Transformative Artificial Intelligence: NITI Aayog and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) initiated collaboration to set up International Centre for Transformative Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI) to conduct advanced research to incubate AI-led solutions in three important areas– healthcare, agriculture and smart mobility.
- National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS): It is a programme led by the Union Ministry of Science & Technology to enhance capabilities of cyber-physical systems. Budget 2019 allotted Rs. 5 crore for the mission.
- AIRAWAT (AI Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation platform): In an attempt to achieve the goal of becoming a $5 Tn economy, the Indian government’s think-tank NITI Aayog recently released an approach paper to set up India’s first AI-specific cloud computing infrastructure called ‘AIRAWAT’ (AI Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation platform).
- The platform aims to guide the research and development of new and emerging technologies.
Artificial intelligence has a lot of potential for India. Nearly 200 Artificial Intelligence start-ups in India are today innovating and creating AI-based solutions for various industries. It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.
A “whole of society” approach to AI governance will enable us to develop broad-based ethical principles, cultures and codes of conduct, to ensure the needed harm-mitigating measures, reviews and audits during design, development and deployment phases, and to inculcate the transparency, accountability, inclusion and societal trust for AI to flourish and bring about the extraordinary breakthroughs it promises.
Source: The Hindu