DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 12th April 2023

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  • April 12, 2023
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Exercise Cope India 23


  • Prelims –Defense

Context: Recently, the announcement for Exercise Cope India 23 between the Indian Air Force, and the United States Air Force was made.

About Exercise Cope India 23:-

  • Exercise Cope India 23, a bilateral air exercise between the Air Forces of India and the U.S.
  • It will be held at Air Force Stations Arjan Singh (Panagarh), Kalaikunda, and Agra.
  • Japan will act as an observer.
  • The exercise aims to enhance mutual understanding between the two Air Forces and share their best practices.
  • It will involve transporting aircraft and Special Forces assets from both the Air Forces.
  • Both sides will field the C-130J and C-17 aircraft, with the USAF operating an MC-130J as well.
  • The Indian Air Force (IAF) is set to field its frontline fighters SU-30MKI, Rafale and the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft along with force multipliers, while the U.S. Air Force is expected to bring in F-15 fighter jets.

MUST READ: India-US relations



Q.1) What is/are the consequence /consequences of a country becoming a member of the ‘Nuclear Suppliers Group’?(2018)

  1. It will have access to the latest and most efficient nuclear technologies.
  2. It automatically becomes a member of “The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC)’, Consider the following statements: (2015)

  1. It was established very recently in response to incidents of piracy and accidents of oil spills
  2. It is an alliance meant for maritime security only

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

State Energy Efficiency Index (SEEI) 2021-22


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Union Minister of Power and New & Renewable Energy, released the report of the State Energy Efficiency Index (SEEI) 2021-22 recently.

About State Energy Efficiency Index (SEEI) 2021-22:-

  • The State Energy Efficiency Index (SEEI) 2021-22 is developed by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in association with Alliance for an Energy-Efficient Economy (AEEE).
    • Alliance for an Energy-Efficient Economy (AEEE):-
      • It was formed in 2008 as a not-for-profit society.
      • It is one of the leading organisations in India that works on creating awareness about energy efficiency as a resource.
      • Its vision and financial support provided by various proactive energy efficiency equipment and services companies- Conzerv Systems Pvt Ltd (CSPL – since acquired by Schneider-Electric India in 2009), Schneider Electric, Thermax Limited, Grundfos Pumps India and Development Enviroenergy Services Ltd, and other practitioners and energy service companies.
      • USAID/ECO-III project partners, International Resources Group, with support from Alliance to Save Energy provided strategic guidance and support to develop and implement AEEE’s Vision and Mission.
      • It supports policy implementation and is an energy efficiency market enabler with a not-for-profit motive.
      •  It promotes data-driven and evidence-based energy efficiency policies and research.
      • Reports: State Energy Efficiency Index 2020, Cold Chain Energy Efficiency in India, and Enabling cold chain infrastructure development in India.
  • It consists of 50 indicators (common and programme-specific) spanning 7 sectors: buildings, industry, municipal services, transport, agriculture, DISCOMs, and cross-sector.
  • It is a tool designed to track Energy Efficiency initiatives in the states and UTs.
  • It is released by the Ministry of Power.
  • There are four categories in the index i.e. Front Runner, Achiever, Contender and Aspirant.
    • Front Runner category (>60 points) It has 5 states: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan and Telangana.
    • Achiever Category (50-60 points): Assam, Haryana, Maharashtra, Punjab.

MUST READ: Renewable Energy Transition



Q.1) “R2 Code of Practices” constitute a tool available for promoting the adoption of (2021)

  1. Environmentally responsible practices in the electronics recycling industry
  2. Ecological management of ‘’Wetlands of International Importance” under the Ramsar Convention
  3. Sustainable practices in the cultivation of agricultural crops in degraded lands
  4. ‘’Environmental Impact Assessment’’ in the exploitation of natural resources

Q.2) According to India’s National Policy on Biofuels, which of the following can be used as raw materials for the production of biofuels? (2020)

  1. Cassava
  2. Damaged wheat grains
  3. Groundnut seeds
  4. Horse gram
  5. Rotten potatoes
  6. Sugar beet

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, 5 and 6 only
  2. 1, 3, 4 and 6 only
  3. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

International Prize in Statistics 2023


  • Prelims –Important Personalities

Context: Recently, the Indian-American statistician Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao has been awarded the 2023 International Prize in Statistics.

About International Prize in Statistics 2023:-

  • International Prize in Statistics 2023 was established in 2016.
  • It is awarded to an individual or group once every two years.
  • It is awarded for significant breakthroughs utilising statistics to improve science, technology, and human welfare.
  • The prize is modelled after the Nobel Prize, Abel Prize, Fields Medal, and Turing Award.
  •  It carries an $80,000 monetary award.
  • The International Prize in Statistics and the COPSS Presidents’ Award are the two top honours in statistics.

Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao’s :-

  • C. R. Rao, is an Indian-American mathematician and statistician.
  •  He is currently professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University and Research Professor at the University at Buffalo.
  • Rao has been honoured by numerous colloquia, honorary degrees, and festschrifts and was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 2002.
  • The American Statistical Association has described him as “a living legend whose work has influenced not just statistics, but has had far reaching implications for fields as varied as economics, genetics, anthropology, geology, national planning, demography, biometry, and medicine.”
  • The Times of India listed Rao as one of the top 10 Indian scientists of all time.
  • In 2023, Rao was awarded the International Prize in Statistics, an award often touted as the “statistics’ equivalent of the Nobel Prize”.
  • Rao is also a Senior Policy and Statistics advisor for the Indian Heart Association non-profit focused on raising South Asian cardiovascular disease.
  • In 1945, Professor Rao’s article, “Information and Accuracy Attainable in the Estimation of Statistical Parameters,” was published.
    •  It encouraged the rapid growth of contemporary statistics and their use in research.
  • In 1948, one of Professor Rao’s publications proposed a revolutionary general technique for evaluating hypotheses, which became known as the “Rao score test.”
    • This and two other tests devised by Jerzy Neyman, E.S. Pearson, and Abraham Wald are commonly referred to as the “holy trinity” of statistics.

MUST READ: Porter prize



Q.1) What is the cas9 protein that is often mentioned in the news? (2019)

  1. molecular scissors used in targeted gene editing.
  2. A biosensor used in the accurate detection of pathogens in patients.
  3. A gene that makes plants pest-resistant
  4. A herbicidal substance synthesized in generally modified crops

Q.2) Consider the following pairs of Terms sometimes seen in news vs Context /Topic: (2018)

  1. Belle II experiment: Artificial Intelligence
  2. Blockchain technology: Digital/ Cryptocurrency
  3. CRISPR — Cas9: Particle Physics

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

UN Democracy Fund


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: Recently, the UN Democracy Fund extended support for NGOs funded by George Soros, who is on a watchlist in India.

About the UN Democracy Fund:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Members of the United Nations by the year of entry – Maps on the Web (zoom-maps.com)

  • The UNDEF was established in 2005 with an initial contribution of $10 million each from the United States and India.
  • Background: In 2005, India’s then PM, Manmohan Singh, and US President George W. Bush announced the US-India Global Democracy Initiative, which included support for the UNDEF.
    • As Joint Secretary (Americas) at the time, S Jaishankar was a lead negotiator.
  • It was created by UN Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan in 2005 as a United Nations General Trust Fund to support democratization efforts around the world.
  • Objectives: to support projects that strengthen the voice and participation of civil society, promote human rights, and encourage the development of democratic institutions and processes.
  • Funding: It is funded entirely by voluntary contributions from member states and is governed by an advisory board composed of 16 members representing different regions of the world.
  • Composition:-
    • The Advisory Board, constituted by the Secretary-General, includes the eight largest Member State contributors and six other states to reflect diverse geographical representation.
    • India has been a member of the Board since the beginning.
  • India’s Contribution to UNDEF:-
    • India gave $5 million to the fund in 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2011.
    • The contributions began dipping in 2012 ($4.71 m) and the following year was $1.85 million.
    • After no contribution in 2017, India was back with $100,000 in 2018 and 2019.
    • In 2020, 2021 and 2022, it gave $150,000.

MUST READ: UN Fund for ‘People’s Economy’ in Afghanistan



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) has a ‘Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air’.
  2. The UNCAC is the ever-first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument.
  3. A highlight of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is the inclusion of a specific chapter aimed at returning assets to their rightful owners from whom they had been taken illicitly.
  4. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is mandated by its member states to assist in the implementation of both UNCAC and UNTOC.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) What is/are the consequence /consequences of a country becoming a member of the ‘Nuclear Suppliers Group’? (2018)

  1. It will have access to the latest and most efficient nuclear technologies.
  2. It automatically becomes a member of “The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

The Gilens model


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, Ruben B. Mathisen undertakes a study on Norway’s democracy, following the ‘Gilens model’ methodology.

About The Gilens model:-

  • It was proposed by Martin Gilens in 2012.
  • In his study, it was found that in the U.S., public policy decidedly favoured the preferences of the affluent, at the expense of the poor and the middle classes.
  • American democracy, shows a heavy reliance on political parties for private campaign donations, which might make it far more unresponsive to the non-affluent.
  • Three different studies inspired by Gilens were held in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.
    • In all these countries, the policy was once again found to be skewed in favour of the preferences of the affluent.
  • But in recent cases of social democracy like Norway, the link between money and politics was much weaker than in the U.S.
    • There are several reasons why the wealthy in Norway haven’t managed to capture policy­making, the way they have in the U.S.

MUST READ: The Global State of Democracy Report, 2021



Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2020)

International agreement/ set-up Subject

  1. Alma-Ata Declaration – Healthcare of the people
  2. Hague Convention – Biological and Chemical Weapons
  3. Talanoa Dialogue – Global Climate Change
  4. Under2 Coalition – Child Rights

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2,3 and 4 only

Q.2) Which of the following adopted a law on data protection and privacy for its citizens known as the ‘General Data Protection Regulation’ in April 2016 and started implementation on 25th May 2018? (2019)

  1. Australia
  2. Canada
  3. The European Union
  4. The United States of America

Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology


About Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Map of Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary with its villages (Source: Akash… | Download Scientific Diagram (researchgate.net)

  • Suhelwa wildlife sanctuary is located in the Sravasti, Balrampur and Gonda districts of Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is connected with the forest of Mahadevpuri in Nepal.
  • It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1988.
  • Flora:  Sal, Sheesham, Khair, Sagaun (Teak), Asna, Jamun, Haldu, Phaldu, Dhamina, Jhingan and Bahera trees.
  • Fauna: Leopard, Tiger, Bear, Wildcat, Wild Boar and various birds.
  • Sohelwa Wild Life Division is situated on the Indo-Nepal International Border.
  • Adjacent to the Sanctuary area there are the Shivalik Ranges of Himalaya.

Cultural Aspect:-

  • Shrawasti, a famous historical place known as Baoudh teeth situated at about 15 Km on Balrampur- Bahraich road.
  • Devipatan Mandir has situated in Tulsipur this mandir is a Sidhpeeth of Maa Durga.
  • Baba Vibhutinath Mandir, which is a famous Shiv Mandir is situated in East Sohelwa Range.

MUST READ: Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary



Q.1) With reference to India’s Desert National Park, which of the following statements is correct? (2020)

  1. It is spread over two districts.
  2. There is no human habitation inside the Park.
  3. It is one of the natural habitats of the Great Indian Bustard.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Recently, there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites? (2017)

  1. Corbett National Park
  2. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Sariska National Park

Debt Relief for a Green and Inclusive Recovery (DRGR)


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology and Economy

Context: Recent reports by Debt Relief for a Green and Inclusive Recovery (DRGR) show that the debt of emerging markets & developing economies rose by 178% from 2008-2022.

About Debt Relief for a Green and Inclusive Recovery (DRGR):-

  • The Debt Relief for Green and Inclusive Recovery (DRGR) Project is a collaboration between the Boston University Global Development Center, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung and the Centre for Sustainable Finance, SOAS University of London.
  • Objective: to advance innovative solutions to address the looming sovereign debt crisis.
  • The DRGR Project works with policymakers, thought leaders and civil society from around the world to develop systemic approaches to both resolve the debt crisis and advance a just transition to a sustainable, low-carbon economy.
  • The framework has not been very effective at bringing all creditors, including private and commercial creditors, on board and linking debt relief with development and climate goals, the findings stated.

Common Framework:-

  • The “Common Framework” was established by the G20 countries in November 2020.
  • Objective:  to provide relief to debtors facing insolvency or liquidity problems.

Recent reports findings: –

  • The sovereign debt of emerging markets and developing economies (EDME) increased by 178 per cent, from $1.4 trillion to $3.9 trillion, between 2008-2021.
  • Global South is staring at a debt crisis, but the “Common Framework” created to provide debt relief has serious shortcomings.
  •  EDMEs are seeing weakened economic growth due to a slow recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic as well as high food and energy prices fuelled by Russia’s war in Ukraine.
  • Escalating climate impacts have added to the financial burden of these countries.
  •  A strong US dollar and depreciating currencies for many EMDEs have exacerbated the problem.
  • These shocks have weakened economic growth and ballooned debt burdens.
  • The authors of the new report called for a reform of the Common Framework.

MUST READ: Green, resilient and inclusive development



Q.1) “Climate Action Tracker” which monitors the emission reduction pledges of different countries is a : (2022)

  1. Database created by a coalition of research organisations
  2. Wing of “International Panel of Climate Change”
  3. Committee under “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”
  4. Agency promoted and financed by United Nations Environment Programme and World Bank

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Climate Group is an international non-profit organisation that drives climate action by building large networks and running them.
  2. The International Energy Agency in partnership with the Climate Group launched a global initiative “EP100”.
  3. EP100 brings together leading companies committed to driving innovation in energy efficiency and increasing competitiveness while delivering on emission reduction goals.
  4. Some Indian companies are members of EP100.
  5. The International Energy Agency is the Secretariat to the “Under2 Coalition”.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1,2, 4 and 5
  2. 1,3 and 4 only
  3. 2,3 and 5 only
  4. 1,2, 3, 4 and 5

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressed happiness over the success of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.

About Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.:-

  • The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) was launched in 2016.
  • Administered by: Ministry of Agriculture
  • Objective: PMFBY insures farmers against all non-preventable natural risks from pre-sowing to post-harvest.
  • It is an insurance service scheme for farmers for their yields which aims to reduce the premium burden on farmers and ensure early settlement of crop assurance claims for the full insured sum.
  • Implemented by: Empanelled general insurance companies


  • The Scheme covers all Food & Oilseeds crops and Annual Commercial/Horticultural Crops for which past yield data is available and for which a requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) are being conducted under General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES).


  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crops as a result of natural calamities, pests & diseases
  • To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming
  • To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices
  • To ensure the flow of credit to the agriculture sector

MUST READ: Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)



Q.1) Consider the following statements: The nationwide ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at (2017)

  1. expanding the cultivable area under irrigation.
  2. enabling the banks to assess the quantum of loans to be granted to farmers on the basis of soil quality.
  3. checking the overuse of fertilizers in farmlands.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Which of the following are the objectives of the ‘National Nutrition Mission’? (2017)

  1. To create awareness relating to malnutrition among pregnant women and lactating mothers. 2. To reduce the incidence of anaemia among young children, adolescent girls and women.
  2. To promote the consumption of millets, coarse cereals and unpolished rice.
  3. To promote the consumption of poultry eggs.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 4 only
  4. 3 and 4 only

Conservation of wildlife in India


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Environment and Ecology)

Context: The Prime Minister of India launched International Big Cats Alliance on Commemoration of 50 years of ‘Project Tiger’ recently. The conservation of wildlife fauna is a complex task that involves addressing various challenges.

  • According to the recent data by the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) and State Forest and Police Authorities, in the past three years (2018-2020), about 2054 cases were registered for killing or illegal trafficking of wild animals in India.

About International Big Cats Alliance (IBCA):

  • IBCA will focus on the protection and conservation of seven major big cats of the world such as tiger, lion, leopard, snow leopard, puma, jaguar and cheetah in collaboration with countries harbouring these species.
  • Membership to the alliance will be open to 97 “range” countries, which contain the natural habitat of these big cats, as well as other interested nations, international organizations, etc.

Challenges posed during the conservation of wildlife fauna:

  • Habitat Loss: One of the most significant challenges in conserving endangered wildlife is habitat loss.
    • With growing urbanization, deforestation, and development activities, the natural habitats of wildlife species are shrinking rapidly.
    • For e.g. Habitat loss faced by Great Indian Bustard in India.
  • Poaching: Poaching of wildlife for their skins, bones, and other body parts is another significant challenge faced by conservation efforts.
    • Poachers often kill wildlife species for illegal trade, which drives the species to the brink of extinction.
    • For example – the Tusk of Elephants, Horns of Rhinoceros.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: As the human population continues to expand, conflicts between wildlife and humans also increase.
    • Wildlife often ventures into human settlements in search of food and water, leading to conflicts and sometimes causing loss of life and property damage.
    • For example – Instances of Elephants being killed while crossing railway tracks.
  • Inadequate funding and resources: Conservation efforts require substantial resources, including funding, staff, and equipment.
    • In India, conservation organizations often struggle to secure adequate resources to carry out their work effectively.
  • Climate change: Climate change can have significant impacts on wildlife habitats and migration patterns, leading to changes in population dynamics and species composition.
  • Invasive species: The introduction of invasive species into ecosystems can disrupt natural ecological processes and threaten native species.
    • Example Invasive species such as water hyacinth and Mimosa are great threats to Kaziranga NP.
  • Poor law enforcement: Enforcement of laws and regulations designed to protect endangered species can be lax, which undermines conservation efforts.
  • Lack of coordination and cooperation: Conservation efforts can be undermined by a lack of coordination and cooperation between different organizations and stakeholders involved in conservation efforts.

Importance of wildlife:

  • Ecological importance: Wildlife helps in maintaining the eco-logical balance of nature. Killing of carnivores leads to an increase in the number of herbivores which in turn affect the forest vegetation, thus due to lack of food in the forest they come out from the forest to agriculture land and destroy our crops.
    • This makes us know that wildlife helps in maintaining ecological balance even by being predators of each other .
  • Economic importance: The wild life can be used to earn money. Wild plant products like food, medicine, timber, fibres, etc. are of economic value and the wild animal products such as meat, medicines, hide, ivory, lac, silk, etc. are of tremendous economic value.
  • Investigatory importance: Some wild organisms are used for scientific experiments such as to test effect of medicine.
  • Conservation of biological diversities: By conserving wildlife, diversity in the environment can be conserved.
    • According to some scientists an ecosystem with more diversity is more stable.
  • Importance in agriculture: Wild organisms are very important for modern agriculture.
    • Production of new hybrid variety using wild plants
    • Production of better hybrid variety of animals used for agriculture using wild animals
    • New species of plants and animals can be produced by them
  • Religion of wild: Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, and they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals.
  • Eco Tourism: Many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife.

Constitutional Provisions

  • Article 48 A in the Directive Principles of State policy, mandates that the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
  • Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution states that it shall be the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests and Wildlife.
  • The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976, Forests and Protection of Wild Animals and Birds was transferred from State to Concurrent List.

Steps taken by government for conservation of Fauna:

  • Wildlife Protection Act 1972: Protected Areas like National Parks, Biodiversity Reserves, etc. were created
  • Project Tiger: Initiated in 1972. It helped in the conservation of both tigers and the entire ecosystem.
  • Project Elephant: Initiated in 1992 with the aim of conserving elephants and their habitat and of migratory routes by developing scientific and planned management measures.
  • Crocodile Conservation Project: The main objectives of the crocodile project is to protect the remaining population of crocodiles and their natural habitat by establishing sanctuaries.
  • UNDP Sea Turtle Project: To conserve the Olive Ridley Turtles. Initiated by Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency in 1999.
  • Cheetah Reintroduction Programme in Kuno Palpur sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh from Namibia.
  • Vulture Conservation: National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) has cleared a plan for conserving vultures.
  • India Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020: The goal of IRV2020 was to increase the rhino population in Assam to 3,000 by establishing populations in new areas.
  • Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 have been drafted to protect wetlands in India.

Way Forward:

Public awareness and education must play an essential part in teaching an environment of compassion in protecting animals with sustainable solutions to address these issues.  All these need to be discussed collectively at a global scale to make a positive impact.

There is dire need to be mindful of tackling increased urbanization, rising temperatures, and ecotourism, which are negatively contributing and fuelling to affect wildlife. The Indian government has taken significant measures to address these challenges and protect endangered wildlife, including tigers, and the recent improvement in the tiger population is a testament to the success of these efforts.

Source:  PIB

Human Composting: A greener way to die


  • Mains – GS 3 (Environment)

Context: Recently, New York became the sixth state in the US to legalise human composting as a burial option.

  • Washington was the first to do so in 2019.

About Human Composting:

Source:   dailymail.co.uk

  • Human composting, also known as natural organic reduction, is a process of transforming the human body into nutrient-rich soil that has emerged as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional burial or cremation.
  • It has gained popularity, especially among the younger generation, for being an eco-friendly alternative to dispose of a corpse.

Process of human composting:

  • The body is first washed and dressed in a biodegradable grown.
  • It’s then placed in a closed vessel, usually measuring 8 feet by 4 feet, along with selected materials such as alfalfa, straw, and sawdust.
  • The body is left to decompose for the next 30 days.
  • To speed up the decay, oxygen is added to the vessel, which results in the unfolding of a process called “aerobic digestion”, in which microbes start to consume organic matter.
  • Temperature inside the container is kept around 130 degrees Fahrenheit or 55 degrees Celsius to kill off contagions.
  • By the time aerobic digestion is over, the body has been transformed into a soil-like material, containing nutrients, bones, and some medical devices — these are taken out from the compost pile and recycled.
  • As the microbial activity comes to an end, the temperature inside the pile drops, marking the transformation from an active composite pile into the soil.


  • The biggest opponent of this process has been the Catholic Church and called it an “unfortunate spiritual, emotional, and psychological distancing from the deceased.
  • It has been believed that the ‘transformation’ of the remains would create an emotional distance rather than a reverence” for the remains.
  • Even cremated remains must remain in a communal place befitting of the dignity inherent in the human body and its connection to the immortal soul.

Significance: Human composting is seen as an alternative to burials and cremations:

  • Methods like burials and cremations are increasingly being seen as contributors to carbon emissions.
    • Cremating one body emits an estimated 190 kg of carbon dioxide into the air, which is the equivalent of driving 756 km in a car.
  • Burial has its hazards too — apart from an indefinite use of land, it involves embalming a corpse in toxic solutions, which could be harmful to the soil.
  • Burials and cremations are expensive, and not many can afford them.
    • In the US, on average, traditional funerals cost $7,000 to $10,000.
  • Therefore, human composting costs around $5,500 including the laying-in ceremony, and uses much less energy than cremation has emerged as a viable option.
  • The soil produced through this procedure can be used for gardening or can be spread in designated memorial grounds or forest conservation areas.

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:

  1. It is an insurance service scheme for farmers for their yields which aims to reduce the premium burden on farmers and ensure early settlement of crop assurance claims for the full insured sum.
  2. It is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture
  3. The Scheme covers all Food & Oilseeds crops and Annual Commercial/Horticultural Crops.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Suhelwa wildlife sanctuary is located in

  1. Uttarakhand
  2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Jharkhand
  4. Andhra Pradesh

Q.3) State Energy Efficiency Index (SEEI) 2021-22 recently released by

  1. Ministry of Power
  2. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  3. NITI Aayog
  4. Bureau of Indian Standards

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 12th April 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 10th April – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d

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