DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th August 2023

  • IASbaba
  • August 28, 2023
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Sri Lanka’s first Karnataka cultural festival


  • Prelims –Art and culture

Context: Recently, Sri Lanka hosted its very first Karnataka cultural festival.

Key highlights of the events:-

  • Organized by: International Cultural Council of India in collaboration with the Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre and M.E Global Peace Foundation.
  • Venue: Performing Arts University Auditorium, Colombo.
  • The event showcased a mesmerizing lineup of performances by performing artists of nearly thirty well-known folk and classical traditions of Karnataka State.
  • Performances included: Dances (Academic, traditional, and folk), musical performances, multilingual poetry recitals, Mudra dramas, puppet shows, etc. will be presented at the concert. (Tholpavakoothu)
  • The programme featured the essence of Karnataka’s heritage, with the spotlight on talented artists like Madhuri Bondre and her troupe.
    • Madhuri Bondre: A prominent Karnataka dancer.
  • The event celebrated cultural diversity and marked a significant moment in the shared cultural heritage of India and Sri Lanka.

About Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre:-

  • Established: 1998
  • Established at Colombo
  • It was formerly known as the Indian Cultural Centre.
  • Objective: Building bridges of cultural exchange and interaction between India & and Sri Lanka.
  • The Centre is one of the 24 Indian Cultural Centres established by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) to :-
    • Revive and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries and seek
    • Promote India-Sri Lanka cultural cooperation by building on cultural commonalities and
    • Create an awareness of Indian culture in all its facets.

MUST READ: Kalyana Karnataka Utsav



Q.1) Which one of the following statements about Sangam literature in ancient South India is correct? (2022)

  1. Sangam poems are devoid of any reference to material culture.
  2. The social classification of Varna was known to Sangam poets.
  3. Sangam poems have no reference to warrior ethics.
  4. Sangam literature refers to magical forces as irrational.

Q.2) With reference to India’s culture and tradition, what is ‘Kalaripayattu’? (2014)

  1. It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in some parts of South India
  2. It is an ancient style bronze and brass work still found in the southern part of the Coromandel area
  3. It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar
  4. It is an ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India

Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant water issue


  • Prelims – International Relations/Disaster Management

Context: South Korean protesters recently, called for government action to avoid any disaster caused by the release of treated radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

Background of the issue:-

  • Japan planned the release of over 1 million tons of water, which is claimed to be treated but potentially radioactive, from the Fukushima nuclear power plant into the sea.
  • This sparked strong opposition and anxiety among neighboring countries, particularly South Korea.

Concerns Raised-

  • South Korea: It fears that the water release will contaminate its waters, salt, and seafood, affecting its fishing industry and public health.
  • China: criticized Japan’s plan, questioned its transparency, and expressed concerns about the potential impact on the marine environment and global health.

Japan’s Alternative Options:-

  • Store the water for longer and then discharge it.
  • This is because tritium’s half-life is 12-13 years.
    • Half-life – the time it takes for its quantity to be halved through radioactive decay.
  • The quantity of any other radioactive isotopes present in the water will decrease in this time.
  • Hence, at the time of discharge, the water would be less radioactive.

Expert Opinion:-

  • The International Atomic Energy Agency in a final report in July 2023, concluded that the release, if conducted as designed, will cause negligible impact on the environment and human health.

About the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant tragedy:-

Development after tragedy:-

  • Since then, Japan has been storing the cooling water for nuclear fuel, and rain and groundwater seeping through the damaged reactor buildings in large tanks on site.
  • The water is treated using a filtering system called Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS).
    • ALPS: a filtering system that removes most of the radioactive elements except for tritium.
    • Tritium: a hydrogen isotope that is difficult to separate.

MUST READ: India’s Nuclear Energy



Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Monazite is a source of rare earths.
  2. Monazite contains thorium.
  3. Monazite occurs naturally in the entire Indian coastal sands in India.
  4. In India, Government bodies only can process or export monazite.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Band-e-Amir National Park


  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: The Taliban government has banned women from visiting the Band-e-Amir National Park in Afghanistan, recently.

About Band-e-Amir National Park:-

IMAGE SOURCE: discoverytumundo.blogspot.com.ar

  • Location: Yakawlang district, Afghanistan (India-Afghanistan)
  • 2009: It was declared Afghanistan’s first national park.
  • It features a chain of six lakes set in the Hindu Kush Mountains.
    • Hindu Kush Mountains: a great mountain system of Central Asia.
  • Lakes:-
  • The lakes are famous for their intense and varying colors, ranging from faint turquoise to deep blue.
  • The colour is a result of the minerals that fill the water and create the lake beds.
  • It’s been called Afghanistan’s Grand Canyon.
  • Tourism: It was visited by thousands of Afghans and pilgrims.
    • It ceased as security nationwide deteriorated with the Taliban coming to power.
  • Wildlife: ibex (wild goats), urials (wild sheep – pictured here), wolves, foxes, fish, and birds

MUST READ: Eco-sensitive Zones (ESZ)



Q.1) Consider the following countries: (2022)

  1. Azerbaijan
  2. Kyrgyzstan
  3. Tajikistan
  4. Uzbekistan
  5. Turkmenistan

Which of the above has borders with Afghanistan?

  1. 1, 2 and 5 only
  2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) Recently, there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to one of the following sites (2017)

  1. Corbett National Park
  2. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Sariska National Park

Zonal Council


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: As per recent reports, Union Minister Amit Shah will Chair the Western Zonal Council meeting organized by the Inter-State Council Secretariat.


  • The meeting is being organized by the Inter-State Council Secretariat under the Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with the Government of Gujarat.
  • The 26th meeting of the Western Zonal Council will be attended by the Chief Ministers of the member states and the Administrator of the Union Territories, along with two senior ministers from each state.
  • Apart from them, the Chief Secretaries, Advisors, and other senior officers of the States, Union Territories, and the Central Government will also participate in the meeting.
  • Issues to be discussed: Infrastructure, mining, water supply, environment and forests, and issues of general regional and national interests will be discussed in the meeting.

About Zonal Council:-

  • They are statutory bodies under the States Re-organization Act, of 1956.
  • There are five councils:-
  • The Northern Zonal Council, the Central Zonal Council, the Eastern Zonal Council, the Western Zonal Council, the Southern Zonal Council.


  • Northern Zonal Council: Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Chandigarh.
  • Central Zonal Council: Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Eastern Zonal Council: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and West Bengal.
  • Western Zonal Council: Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and the Union Territories of Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
  • Southern Zonal Council: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and the Union Territory of Puducherry.
  • The North Eastern States are not included in the Zonal Councils.
    • Their special problems are looked after by the North Eastern Council, set up under the North Eastern Council Act, of 1972.

Historical Background:-

  • The idea of the creation of Zonal Councils was mooted by the first PM Nehru in 1956.
  • This was suggested during the course of debate on the report of the States Re-organization Commission.
  • In the light of the idea promoted by the then PM Nehru, five Zonal Councils were set up under the States Re-organization Act, 1956.


  • To promote and support cooperative federalism in the country.
  • Activate the Inter-State Council and Zonal Councils by organizing its regular meetings.
  • Facilitate consideration of all pending and emerging issues of Centre State and Inter-State relations by the Zonal Councils and Inter-State Council.
  • Develop a sound system of monitoring the implementation of the recommendations of the Inter-State Council and Zonal Councils.

Organizational structure:-

  • Chairman
    • The Union Home Minister is the Chairman of each of these Councils.
  • Vice Chairman
    • The Chief Ministers of the States included in each zone act as Vice-Chairman of the Zonal Council for that zone by rotation, each holding office for a period of one year at a time.
  • Members
    • Chief Minister and two other Ministers as nominated by the Governor from each of the States.
    • Two members from Union Territories included in the zone.
  • Advisers
  • One person nominated by the Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) for each of the Zonal Councils.
  • Chief Secretaries
  • Another officer/Development Commissioner nominated by each of the States included in the Zone.
  • Union Ministers are also invited to participate in the meetings of Zonal Councils depending upon necessity.


  • Each Zonal Council is an advisory body.
  • It may discuss any matter in which States have a common interest and advise the Government.
  • In particular, a Zonal Council may discuss, and make recommendations with regard to:-
    • any matter of common interest in the field of economic and social planning.
    • any matter concerning border disputes, linguistic minorities, or inter-State transport.
    • any matter connected with or arising out of, the re-organization of the States under the State’s Reorganization Act.

MUST READ: Inter-State Council



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Constitution of India classifies the ministers into four ranks viz. Cabinet Minister, Minister of State with Independent Charge, Minister of State, and Deputy Minister.
  2. The total number of ministers in the Union Government, including the Prime Minister, shall not exceed 15 percent of the total number of members in the Lok Sabha.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Which of the following bodies does not/do not find mention in the Constitution? (2013)

  1. National Development Council
  2. Planning Commission
  3. Zonal Councils

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

ASTRA missile


  • Prelims –Defense

Context: Recently, the Indigenous ASTRA missile was tested from Tejas aircraft.

Light Combat Aircraft Tejas:-

  • It is a single-engine multirole light combat aircraft.
  • Historical Background:-
  • The Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme was started by the Government of India in 1984 when they established the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to manage the LCA programme.
  • Designed and developed by: India’s HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited).
  • It replaced the ageing Mig 21 fighter planes.
  • It is the second supersonic fighter jet that was developed by HAL (the first one being HAL HF-24 Marut).
  • It is the lightest and smallest multi-role supersonic fighter aircraft in its class.
  • It is designed to carry a range of air-to-air, air-to-surface, precision-guided, and standoff weaponry.

About ASTRA missile:-

  • Designed and developed by: the Defense Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), Research Centre Imarat (RCI), and other laboratories of DRDO.


  • It is an indigenous Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile. (Astra Mk-1)
    • Beyond Visual Range (BVR): A class of missiles that can target and eliminate aerial threats beyond the reach of direct visual observation, enhancing the aircraft’s combat range and effectiveness.
  • It is an air-to-air missile.

Salient features:-

  • It can engage and destroy highly maneuvering supersonic aerial targets.
  • It is an Indian family of all-weather beyond-visual-range air-to-air missiles.
  • The missile is intended for use by both the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Indian Navy.
  • It boasts advanced air combat capabilities.
  • It can engage multiple high-performance targets


  • The missile will help in reducing the dependency on foreign sources.
  • It can neutralize adversary airborne assets without exposing adversary air defense measures.
  • It’s technologically and economically superior to many such imported missiles.

MUST READ: Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Ballistic missiles are jet-propelled at subsonic speeds throughout their flights, while cruise missiles are rocket-powered only in the initial phase of flight.
  2. Agni-V is a medium-range supersonic cruise missile, while BrahMos is a solid-fuelled intercontinental ballistic missile.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to the Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? (2014)

  1. It is a surface-to-surface missile.
  2. It is fuelled by liquid propellant only.
  3. It can deliver a one-tonne nuclear warhead about 7500 km away.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


India’s fiscal federalism


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Economy)

Context: As India transitioned from a planned economy to a market-oriented system and experienced changes like multi-tier fiscal systems and the Goods and Services Tax (GST), the interplay between fiscal policies and federalism requires a fresh perspective.

About Fiscal Federalism:

  • It is defined as the division of financial powers as well as the functions between multiple levels of the federal government.
  • It has within its ambit the imposition of taxes as well as the division of different taxes between the Centre and the constituent units.
  • Similarly, in the case of joint collection of taxes, an objective criterion is determined for the fair division of funds between the entities.
  • Usually, there is a constitutional authority like Finance Commission in India for the purpose to ensure fairness in the division.

Need for rethinking India’s Fiscal Federalism

Altered Fiscal Landscape

Complex System of Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations

  • This complexity has its roots in several factors, including substantial ethnic, social, and economic disparities among regions.
  • The long-standing vertical imbalance between the expenditure and revenue-raising responsibilities of the state governments is another problem.
  • This imbalance is in part covered by revenue-sharing arrangements.
    • States also receive a variety of grants from the center, but even then, states run deficits.
  • For these reasons, and because of the clear trends toward structural transformation of the economy away from central planning and increased claims of the states for fiscal autonomy, a comprehensive rethinking is needed.

Challenges associated with fiscal federalism:

The share of the States in divisible pool is shrinking despite their carrying a higher burden of expenditure:

  • High share of committed expenses: Status of States’ financial health had taken a turn for the worse with the implementation of the Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana, farm loan waivers, as well as the slowdown in growth in 2019­-20.
  • Pandemic impact has worsened the fiscal positions of State governments.
  • Imbalance : According to the 15th Finance Commission’s report, in FY19, the Union government raised 62.7% of the total resources raised by the Union government and States, while States had borne 62.4% of the aggregate expenditure.
    • This allocation of taxation powers and expenditure responsibilities results in an imbalance and the gap between the share recommended by the FC and the actual devolution has widened.
  • Dependence on centre: The major source of revenue of other States is Central transfers.
    • The Constitution grants the Union government more revenue raising powers while the States are tasked to undertake most of the development and welfare related responsibilities.
  • Inequality: India’s fiscal federalism driven by political centralisation has deepened socio-economic inequality, belying the dreams of the founding fathers who saw a cure for such inequities in planning.

Suggestive measures:

Empowering the Third Tier

  • The panchayat raj institutions and municipalities – merits serious attention.
    • The absence of a uniform financial reporting system across all levels of government creates a critical gap.
  • Despite referring to them as “institutions of self-government,” policymakers often term them as “local bodies,” failing to provide the necessary support.
  • Addressing this gap and ensuring uniform financial reporting systems can fortify the foundation of local democracy.

Curbing Off-Budget Borrowing

  • A critical facet of fiscal federalism pertains to reining in off-budget borrowing practices. Off-budget borrowings, unscrutinised and unreported, pose transparency challenges.
  • Both the Union and States indulge in such practices, with central public sector undertakings and special purpose vehicles raising resources, burdening governments with repayment liabilities.
  • While States adhere to fiscal discipline through Article 293(3) and the FRBM Act, the Union sometimes evades such controls.
    • Transparent reporting mechanisms must encompass all levels of government.

Other measures:

  • Former Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) C. Rangarajan has underscored the importance of fiscal federalism at various levels in current Indian democracy.
  • Distribution of resources was also essential alongside decentralisation of powers for achieving economic growth.
  • The government needs to invest resources towards facilitating effective consultation with states as a part of the lawmaking process.
  • It is critical that the Union establishes a system where citizens and States are treated as partners and not subjects.
  • Recommendations of PV Rajamannar committee of 1971 needs to be considered which suggested that the Finance commission be made a permanent body.
  • The present structure of fiscal federalism in India was formed at the time when its economy was much less market oriented than today, with the central government having a large role in regulation, administration, and planning of the economy.
    • Therefore, with the dynamics of the emerging fiscal federalism of India, a significant rethinking is must, especially in the context of the 16th Finance Commission.

Source: The Hindu

India – Iran relations


  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: Recently India and Iran have agreed to drop the clause for arbitration in foreign courts concerning the Chabahar port.

  • Both sides have agreed to pursue arbitration under rules framed by the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), which is favoured by India over other international trade arbitration mechanisms.

About India – Iran relationship:


  • In the splendid civilization of Mohenjodaro and the Sindh Valley, which flourished between 2500 and 1500 BC, there are visible signs of relationship with the Iranian civilization.
  • The ancient relics, earthenware and the marked resemblance in their designs and patterns are strong evidence in favour of this assertion.
  • During the middle Ages, there was a fusion of medieval Persian culture in India, especially from the Delhi Sultanate till the period of Mughal Hindustan.
  • During colonization, relations between India and the rest of the world were subject to drastic changes, and consequently, contact between Iran and India decreased.
  • In the 1990s, both India and Iran supported the Northern Alliance against the Taliban in Afghanistan, the latter of which received overt Pakistani backing and ruled most of the country until the 2001 United States-led invasion.

Political relations:

  • India and Iran signed a friendship treaty on March 15, 1950.
  • Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Tehran in 2001 and signed the “Tehran Declaration” which set forth the areas of possible cooperation between the two countries.
  • It recognised then Iranian President Mohammad Khatami’s vision of a “dialogue among civilisations” as a paradigm of international relations based on principles of tolerance, pluralism and respect for diversity.
  • In 2003, both sides signed “The New Delhi Declaration” which set forth the vision of strategic partnership between India and Iran.

Trade and Commerce:

  • The value of India’s exports to Iran saw a remarkable increase in 2022, reaching US$1,847 million, representing a substantial increase of 44 percent.
    • At the same time, India’s imports from Iran experienced a significant rise of 60 percent, totaling US$653 million.
    • The notable growth in bilateral trade was largely driven by India’s rice exports to Iran, which reached an impressive value of US$1.098 billion, demonstrating a remarkable growth rate of 52 percent.
  • Major Indian exports to Iran include rice, tea, fresh fruits, sugar, drugs/pharmaceuticals, artificial jewellery and electrical machinery etc.
    • While the major Indian imports from Iran are dry fruits, glass and glassware, inorganic/organic chemicals, natural or cultured pearls, leather, gypsum and precious or semiprecious stones.
  • Its dedication to fortifying trade relations with Iran remains resolute due to its geopolitical challenges.
    • By actively engaging in strategic dialogues and exploring avenues of cooperation, India aims to forge a mutually beneficial and resilient business environment that transcends external pressures.
    • However, in 2023 India had to stop procurement of crude oil from Iran after the US did not continue with sanction waivers to India and several other countries.

Defense cooperation:

  • One of the most significant provisions of 2003’s New Delhi Declaration sought to upgrade defense cooperation between Iran and India.
  • The wide-ranging partnership involved all three military services: the army, navy, and air force.
    • After the Iran-Iraq War, Tehran rebuilt its conventional arsenal by purchasing tanks, combat aircraft, and ships from Russia and China.
  • Iran solicited Indian assistance in 1993 to help develop new batteries for three Kilo-class submarines it had purchased from Russia.
  • The submarine batteries provided by the Russians were ill suited to the warm waters of the Persian Gulf, and India had substantial experience operating Kilo-class submarines in warm water.
  • Iran remains inclined to acquire Indian assistance for other upgrades to its Russian-supplied military hardware, including MiG-29 fighters, warships, and tanks.
  • However, despite these initiatives, strategic and defense cooperation between the two countries is relatively low.
    • The reason for this is India’s turn to the West.

Cultural relations:

  • An Indian Cultural Centre in Tehran was inaugurated in 2013.
  • The Cultural Centre was renamed the Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre (SVCC) in 2018, and was provided a separate premises in 2019.
  • The International Day of Yoga was organised in 2018, 2019 and 2020.
  • The 550th Birth Centenary of Sri Guru Nanak was also observed.
    • The center conducts regular Yoga and Hindi classes.

Indian diaspora:

  • There is a high-level commitment in both countries to promote and facilitate people-to-people contacts. I
  • Indian pilgrims visit the Shi’a pilgrimage circuit in Iran (Qom, Mashhad, and Hamedan) and Iraq (Najaf and Karbala) every year.

Challenges associated with the bilateral relations:

  • USA sanctions: The sanctions imposed by the USA on Iran after Tehran withdrew from the nuclear deal in 2018 may have virtually destroyed India-Iran trade, especially India’s energy imports from Iran.
  • Anti-Iran coalition: Ties also appeared to have been hit by New Delhi’s surprise decision to join the Israel-India-UAE-U.S. group, portrayed as an “anti-Iran” coalition, and by perceptions of Iranian support to Yemeni Houthis behind the drone attack on a UAE oil facility where an Indian was among those killed.
  • Strategic stakes: Iran also happens to be the entry point for India for trade with the Central Asian countries where India’s geographical approach is limited.
    • With the increasing presence of China in Iran, India has been concerned about the strategic stakes of the Chabahar port project.
    • The access to the Chabahar port may prove strategically important for India.
    • Chinese closer ties with oil producers can bring governance and energy security issues for India.

Way Forward:

If India can extend assertive diplomacy being practiced by it, emphasizing on standing by its neighbours and friends and focusing solely on fulfilling its national interests, it could open a huge potential for cooperation between these two great nations and civilizations.

Therefore, there is a need to look forward toward areas of convergence, where both countries have a mutual understanding of each other’s common interests and further work together to achieve the same.

Source: The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Nuclear power plant Location
1.Zaporizhzhia Ukraine
2.Fukushima China
3.Chernobyl Russia

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Zonal Councils are constitutional bodies.


The North Eastern States are not included in the Zonal Councils.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


Band-e-Amir National Park is located in Yakawlang district, Afghanistan.


It was declared Afghanistan’s first national park in 2007.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Analyse the challenges associated with the present India’s fiscal structure and give suggestive measures. (250 words)

Q.2) With recent changes in the geopolitical events, how can India and Iran rebuild their ties affected adversely? Discuss (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 28th August 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 26th August – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d

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