DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 31st August 2023

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  • August 31, 2023
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  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Chandrayaan-3 probe shows 50°C temperature difference between the moon’s surface and below it.


  • On August 27, 2023, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) released a graph of the temperature variation between the moon’s surface and a point around 8 cm below as measured by an instrument named ChaSTE on board the lander module of the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
  • ChaSTE – short for ‘Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment’.
  • Developed by: the Space Physics Laboratory of ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), with the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad.
  • It is a temperature probe that can be driven into the moon’s surface using a motor to a depth of up to 10 cm.
  • It measured the temperature profile of the lunar topsoil around the south pole to understand its thermal behaviour.
  • Its data show that at the moon’s surface (where the lander is located, a point between the craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N), the temperature is 40-50 degrees C. But just under 80 mm under, it plunges to around -10 degrees C.

About Chandrayaan-3:-


  • Chandrayaan-3 is the successor to the Chandrayaan-2 mission.
  • Launch Vehicle: Mark-III (LVM3).
  • Launched site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Composition: It consists of an indigenous Lander module (LM), a Propulsion module (PM), and a Rover.
    • Lander: a spacecraft that descends towards and comes to rest on, the surface of an astronomical body.
    • Propulsion module: a box-like structure, mounted with a large solar panel on one side and a large cylinder on top.
    • Rover: a small vehicle that can move over rough ground, often used on the surface of other planets, sometimes controlled from the earth.
  • The Lander and the Rover have scientific payloads to carry out experiments on the lunar surface.
  • There will not be any orbiters like Chandrayaan 2 in it.

Objectives of Chandrayaan-3 mission:-

  • To demonstrate a Safe and Soft Landing on the Lunar Surface.
  • To demonstrate Rover roving on the moon.
  • To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.

Lander payloads:-

  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE): to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature
  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA): for measuring the seismicity around the landing site
  • Langmuir Probe (LP): to estimate the plasma density and its variations.
  • A passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA is accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.

Rover payloads:-

  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS): for deriving the elemental composition near the landing site.

Propulsion Module Payload:-

  • Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE): Future discoveries of smaller planets in reflected light would allow us to probe into a variety of Exo-planets which would qualify for habitability or for the presence of life.

About GSLV-Mk III:-

  • Weighs: 641 tones.
  • Capacity: GSLV can take 10,000-kg satellites to lower earth orbits.
  • It is also known as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3).
  • It is a three-stage vehicle.
    • It has two solid motor strap-ons, a liquid propellant core stage, and a cryogenic stage.
  • It is the heaviest and the shortest among India’s operational launch vehicles.

MUST READ: Gaganyaan



Q.1) Which one of the following countries has its own Satellite Navigation System? (2023)

  1. Australia
  2. Canada
  3. Israel
  4. Japan

Southwest monsoon


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: As per recent reports, Rishikesh in Uttarakhand was India’s wettest town for most of August during the southwest monsoon season in 2023.


  • Between August 1 and August 25, the town received 1,901 millimeters of rainfall.
  • During the same period, the two wettest places in India and the world, Cherrapunji and Mawsynram, received 1,876.3 mm and 1,464 mm of rainfall respectively.

About the southwest monsoon:-

  • Monsoons are seasonal winds that reverse their direction with the change of season.
  • Monsoons are peculiar to the Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, parts of Central Western Africa, etc.
  • They are more pronounced in the Indian Subcontinent compared to any other region.
  • India receives southwest monsoon winds in summer and northeast monsoon winds in winter.
    • South-west monsoons: formed due to an intense low-pressure system formed over the Tibetan plateau.
    • North-east monsoons: associated with high-pressure cells over Tibetan and Siberian plateaus.
  • South-west monsoons bring intense rainfall to most of the regions in India.
  • Other Countries receiving most of the annual rainfall during the southwest monsoon season: Indonesia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, etc.

Factors responsible for the onset of south-west monsoon:-

  • Intense heating of the Tibetan plateau: The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, resulting in strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level.
  • Permanent high-pressure cell in the South Indian Ocean.
  • Subtropical Jet Stream (STJ).
  • Tropical Easterly Jet (African Easterly Jet).
  • Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ): It is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes.
    • This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge

Factors that influence the intensity of south-west monsoons:-

  • Strengths of Low pressure over Tibet and high pressure over the southern Indian Ocean.
  • Somali Jet (Findlater Jet).
  • Somali Current (Findlater Current).
  • Indian Ocean branch of Walker Cell.
  • Indian Ocean Dipole.

Mechanism of Monsoon:-

  • The location of ITCZ shifts north and south of the equator with the apparent movement of the Sun.
  • June: The sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer and the ITCZ shifts northwards.
  • The southeast trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross the equator and start blowing in the southwest to a northeast direction under the influence of the Coriolis force.
  • These winds collect moisture as they travel over the warm Indian Ocean.
  • July: The ITCZ shifts to 20°-25° N latitude and is located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
    • This causes the southwest monsoons to blow from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
    • The ITCZ in this position is often called the Monsoon Trough.
  • The shift in the position of the ITCZ is also related to the phenomenon of the withdrawal of the westerly jet stream from its position over the north Indian plain, south of the Himalayas.
  • Easterly Jet Stream (Somali Jet): sets in along 15°N latitude only after the western jet stream has withdrawn itself from the region.
    • They are held responsible for the burst of the monsoon in India.
  • As these winds approach the land, their southwesterly direction is modified by the relief and thermal low pressure over northwest India causing monsoon rainfalls.

MUST READ: El Niño and La Niña



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. High clouds primarily reflect solar radiation and cool the surface of the Earth.
  2. Low clouds have a high absorption of infrared radiation emanating from the Earth’s surface and thus cause a warming effect.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to the ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting the Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct (2017)

  1. The IOD phenomenon is characterized by a difference in sea surface temperature between the tropical Western Indian Ocean and the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.
  2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

GREAT Scheme


  • Prelims –Government initiatives

Context: Recently, the Centre announced up to Rs 50 lakh grant for Grant for Research and Entrepreneurship across Aspiring Innovators in Technical Textiles (GREAT) scheme.

About GREAT scheme:-

  • Launched: August, 2023
  • Ministry: Ministry of Textiles.
  • The Scheme focuses on supporting individuals and companies to translate prototypes into technologies & and products, including commercialization.
  • Objective: To provide much-needed impetus for the development of the technical textiles startup ecosystem in India, especially in niche sub-segments such as bio-degradable and sustainable textiles, high-performance and specialty fibers, and smart textiles.
  • The scheme will be commensurate with the National Technical Textiles Mission.
  • National Technical Textiles Mission:-
    • Ministry: Ministry of Textiles
    • Duration: FY 2020-21 till FY 2023-24.
    • Objective: to increase the penetration level of technical textiles in India while leveraging the extraordinary growth rate of the sector.

Salient Features of GREAT scheme:-

  • Grant-in-aid: up to Rs 50 lakh.
  • Duration: 18 months.
  • The textile ministry will additionally provide 10 percent of the total grant-in-aid to incubators.
  • Only a minimum of 10 percent contribution has to be made by the incubatee.
  • Incubators: like IITs, NITs, Textiles Research Associations, and Centres of Excellence.
    • Incubators: Organizations or institutions, that provide resources, mentorship, and support to startups during their early stages.
  • The textiles ministry has also given a nod to 26 institutes for upgrading their laboratory infrastructure and training of trainers in the application areas of technical textiles.
    • Technical Textiles: Textile materials designed to serve specific purposes beyond traditional clothing and furnishing, such as medical textiles, geotextiles, and industrial fabrics.

MUST READ: Textile Industry in India



Q.1) With reference to foreign-owned e-commerce firms operating in India, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2022)

  1. They can sell their own goods in addition to offering their platforms as marketplaces.
  2. The degree to which they can own big sellers on their platforms is limited.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Private and public hospitals must adopt it.
  2. As it aims to achieve universal health coverage, every citizen of India should be part of it ultimately.
  3. It has seamless portability across the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Promotion of Research & Innovation in the Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme


  • Prelims –Government schemes

Context: Recently, the Union Cabinet approved the Promotion of Research & Innovation in Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme.


  • The scheme has an outlay of ₹5,000 crore for five years, from 2023-24 to 2027-28.

About Promotion of Research & Innovation in Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme:-

  • Launched:2023.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.
  • Objectives: to transform the Indian Pharma MedTech sector from cost-based to innovation-based growth by strengthening the research infrastructure in the country.

Salient Features of Promotion of Research & Innovation in Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme:-

  • The scheme promotes industry-academia linkage for R&D in priority areas to inculcate the culture of quality research and nurture our pool of scientists. (Integrated Pharmaceutical Database Management System 2.0)
  • The scheme is proposed to have two components as follows:-
  • Component A: Strengthening the Research Infrastructure.
    • It will encompass the setting up of Centres of Excellence at the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPERs).
  • Component B: Promotion of Research in Pharma MedTech sector:
    • The budget 2023-24 proposes to encourage industry to invest in research and development in specific priority areas.
    • Accordingly, it is proposed that financial assistance under the component would be provided to promote R&D.


  • The funding disbursed for the projects will be recovered through benefit sharing (excluding refunded funding, if any) either through royalty or equity in the following ways:-
    • 10% royalty on the net sale of the product/technology till the patent is effective.
    • Equity (not less than 100% of the DoP support provided).

Benefits of Promotion of Research & Innovation in Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme:-

MUST READ: Pharmaceutical Technology Upgradation Assistance (PTUAS) Scheme



Q.1) With reference to the carbon nanotubes, consider the following statement  (2020)

  1. They can be used as carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body.
  2. They can be made into artificial blood capillaries for an injured part of the human body.
  3. They can be used in biochemical sensors.
  4. Carbon nanotubes are biodegradable.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) With reference to organic farming in India, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. ‘The National ‘Programme for Organic Production’ (NPOP) is operated under the guidelines and ‘directions of the Union Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. ‘The Agricultural and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority ‘(APEDA) functions as the Secretariat for the implementation of NPOP.
  3. Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic State.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Durand Cup


  • Prelims –Sports

Context: Recently, Racial slurs and slippers were hurled during the Durand Cup semi-finals.


  • Students from the Northeast and Darjeeling allegedly faced racial slurs and had stones and slippers hurled at them during a football match between NorthEast United FC and East Bengal FC at Kolkata’s Vivekananda Yuba Bharati stadium.

About Durand Cup:-

  • Edition: 132nd edition.
  • Date: August 3 – September 3, 2023.
  • Venues – Guwahati and Kokrajhar in Assam, Shillong in Meghalaya, and Kolkata in West Bengal.
  • Organized by: the Indian Armed Forces.
  • It is Asia’s oldest football tournament.
    • The top Indian football clubs from across the country participate in it.
  • The Durand Cup is the world’s third-oldest football (Sports Code)
  • First edition: 1888.
  • Venue: Dagshai (Himachal Pradesh)
  • Naming: It is named after its founder Sir Henry Mortimer Durand.
  • Mohun Bagan and East Bengal are the most successful teams in the history of the Durand Cup winning it sixteen times each.

Historical Background:-

  • It started off as an Army Cup.
  • It was open only to the British Indian Army troops in India.
  • It was begun as a football tournament for different departments and regiments of the Armed Forces of India and the princely states.
  • Since independence, the army’s presence has been maintained by the participation of several clubs of different regiments of the Indian Armed Forces as guest invitees.


  • The winning team in the Durand Cup tournament walks away with three trophies:-
    • The Durand Cup: a rolling trophy and the original prize.
    • The Shimla Trophy: a rolling trophy first given by the residents of Shimla in 1904.
    • The President’s Cup: for permanent keep and first presented by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, India’s first President, in 1956.

MUST READ: Indian Olympic Association



Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the 44th Chess Olympiad, 2022: (2023)

  1. It was the first time that the Chess Olympiad was held in India.
  2. The official mascot was named Thambi.
  3. The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Vera Menchik Cup.
  4. The trophy for the winning team in the women’s section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Consider the following statements in respect of the Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards. (2021)

  1. Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards are titled under Article 18(1) of the Constitution of India.
  2. Padma Awards, which were instituted in the year 1954, were suspended only once.
  3. The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of five in a particular year.

Which of the above statements is not correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

China and Bhutan border dispute


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: China and Bhutan border dispute talks were held recently, with a focus on a ‘three-step road map’.

About the China and Bhutan border dispute:-

  • Bhutan shares an over 400 km-long border with China.
    • In the north – Pasamlung and Jakarlung valleys.
    • In the west – Doklam, Dramana, and Shakhatoe, Yak Chu and Charithang Chu, and Sinchulungpa and Langmarpo valleys.
    • These places are strategically located in the Bhutan-India-China trijunction, lying precariously close to India’s Siliguri Corridor.
  • The dispute involves territorial claims between the two countries over parts of Bhutan’s territory, particularly in areas bordering Tibet.
  • The disputed regions between China and Bhutan include Doklam, Gamochen, Batangla, Sinchela, Sakteng, and Amo Chhu Bhutan and China lack formal diplomatic relations.

Boundary Negotiation between Bhutan and China so far:-

  • Bhutan does not have a formal diplomatic relationship with China, but it began its first border negotiations with China in
  • To date, both countries have held 11 expert group meetings and 24 rounds of border negotiations.
  • 2021: Bhutan and China signed an MoU on the Three-Step Roadmap for Expediting the China-Bhutan Boundary Negotiations.
    • The three-step roadmap has still not been made public.

Recent agreement:-

  • The roadmap “for Expediting the Bhutan-China Boundary Negotiations”, is expected to progress on the Three-Step Roadmap boundary talks process that has been delayed for five years.
  • It was stalled due to the Doklam standoff in 2017, and then by the Covid Pandemic.
  • A new joint technical team set up by Bhutan and China for delimitation of the disputed border between the two countries held its first meeting in Beijing in August 2023.

Implications for India:-

  • China controls much of the Doklam: Since the 2017 stand-off with India, Beijing has already strengthened its de facto control over much of the Doklam plateau, located strategically along the India-China-Bhutan trijunction. (India-Bhutan: Kholongchhu project)
  • Bhutan’s support to China on Doklam.
  • Deadlock at LAC talks: Its timing is particularly significant New, given that India-China border talks on their 17-month-old standoff at the Line of Actual Control appear to have hit a deadlock.
  • India’s strategic risks: This has big implications for India since the Doklam swap would have given China access to the strategically sensitive “chicken neck” of the Siliguri corridor.

 MUST READ: India-China relations, a year after Galwan



Q.1) Recently, India signed a deal known as ‘Action Plan for Prioritization and Implementation of Cooperation Areas in the Nuclear Field’ with which of the following countries? (2019)

  1. Japan
  2. Russia
  3. The United Kingdom
  4. The United States of America

Q.2) The ‘Fortaleza Declaration’ recently in the news, is related to the affairs of: (2015)

  1. ASEAN
  2. BRICS
  3. OECD
  4. WTO

Mains: India and AI regulation


  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology) and GS 4 (Ethics)

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s recent appeal to expand “ethical” artificial intelligence (AI) tools carries significant implications, particularly in the context of the upcoming G20 Summit in New Delhi.

About Artificial Intelligence (AI):

  • Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Computer Science that is responsible for performing tasks commonly associated with human cognitive functions.
  • These functions include interpreting speech, playing games, identifying patterns, generating arts etc.

Need for AI regulation:

  • Bias and discrimination: AI systems can inherit biases from the data they are trained on, leading to discriminatory outcomes.
    • For example, facial recognition algorithms have been shown to have higher error rates for women and people with darker skin tones.
  • Lack of accountability: The responsibility and accountability for AI decisions can be unclear, especially when complex systems are involved.
    • This poses challenges in determining liability in case of AI-related accidents or harm caused by AI systems.
  • Lack of transparency: Many AI algorithms operate as black boxes, making it difficult to understand how they reach their decisions.
    • This lack of transparency raises concerns about accountability and the potential for unfair or biased outcomes.
  • Privacy and data protection: AI systems often rely on vast amounts of personal data, raising concerns about privacy and data protection. Improper handling of data can result in unauthorized access, misuse, or breaches of sensitive information.
  • Ethical considerations: AI raises ethical questions related to the impact on jobs, social inequality, and the concentration of power.
    • For example, automated decision-making in hiring processes may perpetuate existing biases and result in unfair outcomes.
  • Lack of regulation and standards: The rapid advancement of AI has outpaced the development of comprehensive regulatory frameworks and industry standards.
    • This creates a regulatory gap and potential risks associated with unchecked AI development and deployment.
  • Security risks: AI systems can be vulnerable to cybersecurity threats and attacks. Adversarial attacks can manipulate AI models to produce incorrect or malicious results, posing risks in critical domains such as autonomous vehicles or healthcare.

Advantages of regulating AI:

  • Ethical use and accountability: Regulation ensures that AI systems are developed and deployed in an ethical manner, holding organizations accountable for their actions.
    • This promotes responsible AI practices and prevents the misuse of AI technologies.
  • Consumer protection: Regulating AI protects consumers from fraudulent or deceptive practices.
    • It ensures transparency and fairness in AI-driven products and services, enabling consumers to make informed decisions and seek redress in case of harm.
  • Fairness and non-discrimination: Regulating AI can help address bias and discrimination by enforcing fairness principles.
    • It ensures that AI systems do not disproportionately affect certain groups and promotes equal opportunities for all individuals.
  • Trust and public confidence: Regulations help build trust and public confidence in AI technologies by ensuring responsible and accountable use.
    • This can lead to wider adoption of AI solutions and increased societal acceptance.
  • International collaboration: Regulations facilitate international cooperation and harmonization of AI standards.
    • This promotes consistency in ethical practices, fosters global collaboration, and addresses challenges associated with cross-border AI applications.

Challenges in regulating AI:

  • Complexity and development: Regulating AI is challenging due to its complexity and the speed at which it develops.
    • Creating effective regulations that address the intricacies of AI systems and keep pace with technological advancements can be difficult.
  • Rapid technological advancement: AI is evolving at a rapid pace, making it challenging for regulators to keep up with the latest developments and effectively regulate a technology that is constantly evolving.
  • Increased costs and competition: Compliance with regulations may impose additional costs on businesses, particularly smaller companies and startups, limiting their ability to compete in the AI market.
    • The burden of regulatory compliance could disproportionately affect smaller players.
  • International cooperation: AI regulation requires international cooperation and collaboration to address global challenges, harmonize standards, and prevent regulatory arbitrage.
    • Developing consensus among different countries with varying interests and priorities can be a complex task.
  • Accountability and liability: Determining responsibility and liability when AI systems cause harm or make erroneous decisions can be challenging.
    • Clarifying the legal frameworks and accountability structures surrounding AI is crucial for effective regulation.

AI regulation across the world:


  • NITI Aayog, has issued some guiding documents on AI Issues such as the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence and the Responsible AI for All report.
  • Emphasises social and economic inclusion, innovation, and trustworthiness.

Way Forward:

Therefore, PM Modi’s call for ethical AI expansion marks a pivotal moment in India’s regulatory landscape. The nation’s shift from non-interference to proactive regulation demonstrates a keen understanding of AI’s transformative potential and the need to navigate its challenges collectively on the global stage.

Source:  Indian Express

Rozgar Mela


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: Recently, the Prime Minister distributed more than 51,000 appointment letters to newly inducted recruits under the Rojgar Mela (Employment Fair).

About Rojgar Mela:

  • Rozgar Mela is an employment strategy to fast-track the meeting of job seekers and employers.
  • The Rozgar Mela is expected to act as a catalyst in further employment generation and provide meaningful opportunities to the youth for their empowerment and participation in national development.

Unemployment in India: According to the recent National Statistical Office (NSO) has released the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS):

  • The unemployment rate in urban areas for persons aged above 15 eased to 7.2% in July­-September 2022 from 9.8% in July-September 2021.
  • Unemployment Ratio: The unemployment ratio is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.
    • The unemployment rate was 6.6% for men and 9.4% for women (9.3% and 11.6% in July-September 2021).
  • Worker-Population Ratio (WPR): The WPR is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.
    • The WPR in urban areas for persons aged 15 and above stood at 44.5% (42.3% in July-September 2021).
    • The WPR among men was 68.6% and 19.7% among women (66.6% and 17.6% in 2021).
  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): It is defined as the percentage of persons in the labour force who are working, seeking, or available for work in the population, in urban areas for persons aged 15 and above.
    • It increased to 47.9% (46.9% in July-September 2021).
    • The LFPR among men was 73.4% and 21.7% among women (73.5% and 19.9%, in July-September 2021).

Major causes of unemployment in India:

  • Social factors: In India the caste system is prevalent. The work is prohibited for specific castes in some areas.
    • In big joint families having big business, many such persons will be available who do not do any work and depend on the joint income of the family.
  • Rapid growth of population: Constant increase in population has been a big problem in India.
    • It is one of the main causes of unemployment.
  • Dominance of agriculture: Still in India nearly half of the workforce is dependent on Agriculture.
    • However, it is underdeveloped in India.
  • Fall of cottage and small industries: The industrial development had adverse effects on cottage and small industries.
    • The production of cottage industries began to fall and many artisans became unemployed.
  • Immobility of labour: Mobility of labour in India is low. Due to attachment to the family, people do not go too far off areas for jobs.
    • Factors like language, religion, and climate are also responsible for low mobility.
  • Defects in education system: Jobs in the capitalist world have become highly specialised but India’s education system does not provide the right training and specialisation needed for these jobs.
    • Thus, many people who are willing to work become unemployed due to lack of skills.

Impacts of Jobless growth:

  • For working women: Between 2010 and 2020, the number of working women in India dropped to 19% from 26%, according to data compiled by the World Bank.
    • CMIE estimated that female labour force participation plummeted to 9% by 2022.
  • Affects demographic dividend: A growing reserve of frustrated, unemployed youth threatens to turn India’s demographic dividend of having a young population into a curse.
  • Declining agriculture employment: The proportion of Indians employed in agriculture had been falling for decades, but this process flattened some years ago and was reversed by the covid crisis.
    • Those who move out of farming mostly find themselves in low-paying construction work and informal services.
  • Lack of required skills: India’s economic growth has been largely services led, with a small pool of skills at the upper end, given a glaring failure in mass education.
    • India presents a paradox of skill shortages while being labour surplus.
    • Trucks are idle because of the shortage of drivers. The steel industry needs more metallurgists.

Government’s Initiatives to Curb Unemployment:

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Lunar Mission Country
1.Pioneer 1 USA
2.Chandrayaan-1 India
3.Luna 1 Russia

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Promotion of Research & Innovation in Pharma-MedTech sector (PRIP) scheme was launched on 16th August 2023.


It is under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


Monsoons are peculiar to the Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, parts of Central Western Africa, etc.


Southwest monsoon is associated with high-pressure cells over the Tibetan and Siberian plateaus.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Critically analyse the key challenges in the advent of AI in India and measures to harness the power of AI. (250 words)

Q.2) Discuss the issue of unemployment in India. What India should do check rising unemployment? (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 31st August 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 30th August – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – b

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